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W. C. dc K. S. Steef? 



LIBRARY OF THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

PRINCETON, N. J. 



Purchased by the 
Mrs. Robert Lenox Kennedy Church History Fund. 



BX 8947 .N8 C72 1907 
Craig, D. I. 1849-1925. 
A history of the development 
of the Presbyterian Church 



"41 > *» i»* 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRESBY- 
TERIAN CHURCH IN NORTH 
CAROLINA. 



\\V^' ' • * . -I,- 








( JUN 16 i^ 

A HISTORY ^^-J!!:;:^-. 



Development of the Presbyterian 
Church in North Carolina j 

AND OF 

Synodical Home Missions^ 



TOGETHER WITH 



EVANGELISTIC ADDRESSES BY JAMES I. VANCE, D. D., 

AND OTHERS 



BY 

Rev. D. I. CRAIG. 



RICHMOND, VA.: 
Whittet & Shkpperson, Printers. 



Copyright 

BY 

Rev. William Black 
1907. 



INTRODUCTION. 

By Rev. H. G. Hill, D. D. 

It is well to write the history of Synodical Home ]\Iis- 
sion work in North Carolina at the present time. Nearly 
a score of years have passed since it was inaugurated. It 
met with considerable opposition, on the part of con- 
scientious brethren, who doubted the constitutional right 
of Synod to engage in this work. The plans and methods 
of conducting it were altered and amended, as experi- 
ence and wisdom demanded. The present scheme of 
conducting it, by a synodical committee, consisting of 
one minister and one elder from each Presbytery, with 
an executive committee of five members of the whole 
committee, aided by a superintendent and a general evan- 
gelist, is the result of long experience and varied experi- 
ment. The w^isdom of this plan has been manifested by 
the success attained, and by the fact that substantially the 
same plan has been adopted by other Synods. The re- 
sults achieved by Synodical Home Alission work, both 
direct and indirect, have been m^ost gratifying and in- 
spiring. The efforts of the Synod have lifted our people 
to a higher plane of giving, and have stimulated the Pres- 
byteries to more vigorous endeavors at evangelization 
within their own bounds. In less than a score of years, 
churches of our faith have been planted in all the counties 
of the State except twelve or thirteen ; the number of the 
Presbyteries has risen from four to eight ; and the roll of 
communicants has increased from 25,000 to more than 40,- 
000. Surely, results like these have more than justified 
all the thought, money and labor that have been ex- 



6 Introduction. 

pended upon Synodical Home Missions in North Caro- 
lina. But many of the actors in these stirring scenes have 
passed away and others are nearing the close of their 
earthly career. It is wise, therefore, to gather up the 
facts connected with Home Mission work in this State 
while some survive who are familiar with them, and be- 
fore they pass from the memory of the living. The 
story of Presbyterian Gospel progress in North Carolina 
will be profoundly interesting to future church historians, 
and will edify and stimulate generations yet to come. The 
author of this history of Synodical Home Missions in 
North Carolina, Rev. D. I. Craig, of Reidsville. N. C, 
deserves the approbation of his cotemporaries and will, 
be entitled to the gratitude of posterity for his laborious 
and successful eflforts to preserve for the church and the 
world the interesting facts recorded. Having been stated 
clerk of the Synod of North Carolina for many years, 
having personal knowledge of many of the events men- 
tioned, having ready access to the documents furnishing 
information, and having corresponded wath many of the 
most active promoters of mission work in this and other 
States, the author is eminently qualified to become the 
historian of this synodical movement. To those who 
know him, it is needless to say that he has been very 
diligent in collecting the material, and used the greatest 
care to render his statements truthful, accurate and profit- 
able to his readers. It enhances the value of the work he 
has done for the church to know that he has prosecuted 
it with comparatively little help or encouragement, and 
without hope of pecuniary reward for his toil. But useful 
labor is largely its own reward, and it is hoped that this 
publication will receive from the Presbyterians of this 
Synod a most hearty welcome, and find a place in every 
home within our bounds. 



CONTENTS. 

Introduction, By H. G. Hill, D. D., 5 

CHAPTER I. 
A Brief Retrospect of the Presbyterian Church 

IN North Carolina Prior to 1812, 9 

CHAPTER H. 
The Synod of North Carolina from the Time 

OF ITS Formation Until the Civil War^ .... 20 

CHAPTER HI. 
The Synod of North Carolina During the 

Civil War and its Reconstruction Period, 30 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Origin of Synodical Home Missions in 

North Carolina, 40 

CHAPTER V. 

The Inauguration of Synodical Home Missions 

IN North Carolina and Men of the Times, 55 

CHAPTER VI. 
The Progress of Synodical Home Missions in 

North Carolina, and the Men of the Times, 70 



8 Contents. 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Continued Progress^ and Some of the Re- 
sults OF Synodical Home Missions in North 
Carolina^ and the Men of the Times, 88 

CHAPTER VIII. 
A Brief Summary of Some of the Results of 
Synodical Home Missions in North Caro- 
lina Ill 



Evangelistic and Missionary Addresses : 

Foreword, 127 

"If My Country were Heathen," Rev. James 

I. Vance, D. D., 129 

"The Evangelistic Pastor/' Rev. J. Wilbur 

Chapman, D. D., 141 

''Home Missions the Supreme Need of the 
Hour," Rev. S. L. Morris, D. D., 171 

"Mission Work," Rev. Wm. Black, 182 



The Presbyterian Church in 
North Carolina. 



CHAPTER I. 



A Brief Retrospect of the Presbyterian Church in 
North Carolina Prior to 1812. 

In order to get a clear conception of the development 
of the Presbyterian Church in North CaroHna, it seems 
necessary to take into consideration some of the facts 
and conditions of the church from an early period in 
her history down to the time of the fonnation of the 
Synod of North Carolina, Consequently the first chap- 
ter of this book is devoted chiefly to a brief statement of 
some of these facts and conditions, touching ihe progress 
of the church, and also the dates showing the time of the 
formation of her courts. 

The Presbytery of Hanover was formed by the Synod 
of New York in the year 1755, and its territory embraced 
indefinitely the whole southern country, and, of couise, 
included North Carolina. The first Presbyterian church 
court (higher than a church session) ever held in North 
Carolina, so far as I have been able to ascertain, was 
that of Hanover Presbytery, which convened at " Lower 
Hico" Church, in Person county, afterwards called ''Bar- 
netts," on October 2, 1765. This meeting was held for 
the purpose of ordaining and installing the Rev. James 



lo The Presbyterian Church 

Cressvvell as pastor of this church, together with Grassy 
Creek and Nutbush churches, in Granville county. At 
this meeting, also, the Rev. Henry Pattillo was called to 
the Churches of Hawfields and Little River, in Orange 
county. 

The second meeting of Hanover Presbytery held in 
North Carolina was at " Middle Hico," nov/ known as 
"Red House Church," in Caswell county, on June 4, 1766. 

The third meeting of this Presbytery held in North 
Carolina was at Buffalo Church, in Guilford county, 
then Rowan county, on March 2, 1768. At this meeting 
the Rev. Dr. David Caldwell was installed pastor, though 
he had been serving this church for several years ; the 
Rev. Joseph Alexander was ordained '*sine-titulo," and 
the Rev. Hugh McAden was called from Duplin county 
to the churches on the ''Hico." Mr. McAden had been 
a resident minister in Duplin county since 1757, and Mr. 
Alexander was the successor of the Rev. Alexander 
Craighead, who was called to Rocky River in 1758, and 
who died at Sugar Creek Church, in Mecklenburg 
county, in 1766. There is no record, so far as I know, 
of the installation by Hanover Presbytery of Mr. 
McAden at "Goshen" Church, in Duplin county, or of 
Mr. Craighead at Rocky River Church, in Cabarrus 
county. But in those days the synod often acted in a 
Presbyterial capacity when it was necessary; for we find 
that in 1765 a call from the "Catry's Settlement," in 
North Carolina (Thyatira Church) was presented to the 
Synod of New York and Philadelphia for the Rev. Elihu 
Spencer, and placed in his hands ; and at the same time 
a call was presented from the Hopewell and Centre 
churches for the Rev. Mr. McWhorter, which was not 
placed in his hands. It would seem from this that Han- 
over Presbytery was not regarded by these congrega- 



In North Carolina. ii 

tions, and it is possible that Messrs. McAden and Craig- 
head were installed by a commission from the synod. 

The fourth and last meeting of Hanover Presbytery 
held in North Carolina was at Buffalo Church, in Guil- 
ford county, March 7, 1770. At this meeting an over- 
ture to the Synod of New York and Philadelphia was 
adopted for the erection of Orange Presbytery, and in 
May following the overture was granted, and on the 5th 
day of September, 1770, at the Hawfields Church, in 
Orange county, the Presbytery of Orange was organized. 

Prior to 1765 very few regular Presbyterian ministers 
had resided or were then living in North Carolina. These 
were the Rev. Messrs. Hugh McAden, James Campbell, 
Alexander Craighead, James Cresswell, Henry Pattillo, 
David Caldwell, and James Tate, who was never con- 
nected with Orange Presbytery, but lived in Wilmington : 
It is also possible that the Rev. William Tennent lived 
in Granville county for a short time about 1743, and that 
the Rev. Samuel Black lived in Duplin or New Hanover 
county a short time about 1744. There were a number 
of missionaries sent through the State before this time, 
and the first missionary, and indeed the first Presbyterian 
minister^ known to have preached in North Carolina was 
the Rev. William Robinson, about 1742. 

Of the above named ministers, McAden, Cresswell, 
Pattillo and Caldwell, together with Joseph x\lexander, 
Hezekiah Balch and Hezekiah James Balch, composed 
the original Presbytery of Orange in 1770. 

In 1765 many boundaries were fixed, and many 
churches throughout the State were organized and re- 
organized by the Rev. Messrs. Spencer and McWhorter, 
who were commissioned by the synod to do this work, 
and in 1770 there were about forty or fifty churches in 
the State, with a membership of about 2,000. 



12 The Presbyterian Church 

The territory of Orange Presbytery at this time ex- 
tended indefinitely to the south and west from the Vir- 
ginia boundary, but practically only the State of North 
Carolina east of the Blue Ridge, and the upper part of 
South Carolina, were occupied by its ministers. 

It is a matter of deep, though vain, regret that the 
records of Orange Presbytery, embracing the first 
twenty-five years of its history (1770-1795, and also from 
1 8 12 to 1827) are lost beyond recovery. They were 
burned with the residence of Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon, 
near Hillsboro, N. C, on January i, 1827. 

From 1770 to 1784 embraced the period in which oc- 
curred the Revolutionary War, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence at Charlotte and at Philadelphia, and American 
freedom, with all the stirring scenes, events and hardships 
incident thereto ; and yet during that period the Presbyte- 
rian Church seems to have strengthened and grown more 
rapidly than for a number of years afterwards. Fourteen 
ministers were added to the roll, and quite a number of 
churches were organized during that period. The names 
of the ministers were: John Harris, James Campbell 
(who belonged to the old South Carolina Presbytery), 
James Edmonds, Thomas Reece, John Simpson, Alex. 
McMillan, Samuel E. McCorkle, Thomas H. McCaul, 
John Debow, Thomas Hill, Andrew Patton, James Hall, 
Robert Archibald and John Cossan. The Rev. Dr. 
McCorkle became a member of the Presbytery in 1777, 
and the Rev. Dr. Hall in 1778, and these two men were 
the peers in the western section of the Presbytery ; of 
Henry Pattillo and David Caldwell in the middle or 
eastern section, and all four of them were profound 
scholars, able statesmen and staunch patriots, and they 
wielded a tremendous influence in their day for civil 
liberty and Presbyterianism in North Carolina. The 



In North Carolina. 13 

names of these four men, together with Craighead, 
McAden, Campbell, Alexander and H. J. Balch, and 
others mentioned above, will never be forgotten in con- 
nection with the great struggle for American Independ- 
ence and the advancement of the Presbyterian Church. 

In 1784 there was a general adjustment of the bound- 
aries of the Presbyteries throughout the United States, 
and during that year the Presbytery of South Carolina 
was set off from Orange by the Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia. The first meeting was held at Waxhaws 
in April, 1785, with the following members : Rev. Messrs. 
Alexander, Edmonds, Reece, Harris, Simpson and Fran- 
cis Cummins. The State line between North and South 
Carolina now became, to a considerable extent, the south- 
ern boundary of Orange Presbytery. 

In 1788 the Synod of New York and Philadelphia was 
dissolved, and the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America was formed, and 
as a part of the formation the Synod of the Carolinas was 
erected. 

The Synod of the Carolinas existed until 181 3, and 
was composed of the Presbyteries of Orange, South 
Carolina, and Abingdon, the territory of the latter being 
chiefly in Tennessee. The first meeting of the synod was 
held at Centre Church, in Rowan county. North Carolina, 
on November 5, 1788. The Rev. David Caldwell preached 
the opening sermon, and was Moderator of the meeting. 
Only ten ministers and eight ruling elders were present, 
though the roll of the three Presbyteries at this time 
showed the names of twenty-eight ministers. 

During the existence of this synod considerable efforts 
were made to extend the Gospel into the destitute regions 
of the State, and even beyond the State into Tennessee and 
Mississippi. The great cause of domestic missions was 



14 The Presbyterian Church 

freely discussed in what was then called " The Free Con- 
versation," and various members of the Synod were 
appointed from time to time as missionaries, and these 
brethren would often spend weeks, and sometimes as long 
as six months, in their journeys travelling over the coun- 
try and preaching the Gospel wherever they could com- 
mand an audience. The Rev. James Hall, D. D., did a 
great deal of this kind of work in his day, and his reports 
to the synod, which, with others, are still on record, are 
elaborate and intensely interesting. 

In 1795 the Presbytery of Concord was set off from 
Orange by the Synod of the Carolinas, with the follow- 
ing twelve ministers: Rev. Messrs. Samuel McCorkle, 
James Hall, James McRee, David Barr, Samuel C. Cald- 
well, James WalHs, J. D. Kilpatrick, L. F. Wilson, John 
Carrigan, Humphrey Hunter, J. M. Wilson and Alexan- 
der Caldw-ell. The Yadkin river was made the line of 
division, cutting the State into two parts. Concord em- 
bracing the territory west and Orange east of this line. 
The first meeting of Concord Presbytery was held at 
Bethphage Church December 24, 1795. 

In 1799 the first recorded statistics are given, and 
these show that the two Presbyteries of Orange and Con- 
cord had a membership at that time of twenty-nine min- 
isters and fifty-five churches, but the number of com- 
municants is not given. 

In 1800, and for several years afterwards, the church 
witnessed and enjoyed one of the most remarkable and 
wonderful revivals of religion that this country has per- 
haps ever seen. It began in 1800, and lasted for several 
years, and it was remarkable in its extent, covering sev- 
eral States, and in the strange affections of mind and 
body which possessed the people without warning, and 
regardless of time or place. It seems to have had its 



In North Carolina. 15 

origin under the preaching of the Rev. James McGready, 
who was indeed a very remarkable man, and whose first 
charge was at the Haw River, Speedwell and Stony 
Creek churches in Orange Presbytery in the years 
i793-'5- He removed to Kentucky, where the great 
revival began, and it gradually spread over a great por- 
tion of the whole southern country, and especially in 
North Carolina in the year 1802. Great numbers pro- 
fessed conversion and united with the church, and a 
lasting work for the Master seems to have been accom- 
plished. 

A particular account of the life and character of Mr. 
McGready and of this strange and wonderful work of 
grace may be seen in Dr. Foote's ''Sketches of North 
Carolina." 

In 1812, among the last acts enacted by the Synod of 
the Carolinas was to set off from Orange the Presby- 
tery of Fayetteville, with the following eight members: 
Rev. Messrs. Samuel Stanford, William L. Turner, Mal- 
colm McNair, Murdock McMillan, John Mclntyre, Wil- 
liam B. Meroney, Allen McDougald and William Pea- 
cock. 

This Presbytery did not meet and organize at the time 
appointed, but held its first meeting at Centre Church, in 
Robeson county, October 21, 1813. 

The Synod of the Carolinas then adopted, as its closing 
act, an overture to the General Assembly for the division 
of itself into two synods, to be known as the " Synod of 
North Carolina," comprising the Presbyteries of Orange, 
Concord and Fayetteville; and the ''Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia," comprising the Presbyteries of 
South Carolina, Hopewell and Harmony, and that the 
Synod of the Carolinas be dissolved. 

The Synod of the Carolinas then adjourned sine die at 
New Providence Church, October 5, 1812. 



i6 The Presbyterian Church 

During the existence of thi» synod a very great deal 
was accomplished along many lines, looking to the ad- 
vancement of Christ's kingdom and the development of 
the Presbyterian Church. New Presbyteries were formed, 
boundaries were fixed, and a vast amount of missionary 
work was done. We must remember — and we too often 
forget — that in those days the educational, religious and 
missionary advantages were not what they are now, and 
that the chief mode of travel was on horseback, and that 
many of the ministers, pastors as well as missionaries, 
spent a large portion of their time in the saddle. The 
territory was almost unlimited, and many of the congre- 
gations were scattered and far apart, and, besides the 
daily travel and constant hardships, the occasional trips 
to the synod or to the General Assembly, the latter usually 
meeting in Philadelphia, were long and v^earisome jour- 
neys. There were many difficulties to be met and obsta- 
cles to be overcome ; there were no settled plans for syste- 
matic giving, for the extension and support of the 
Gospel, and the compensation of ministers was exceed- 
ingly small, but these men faithfully did their work and 
preached the Gospel in all its simplicity and purity, and 
left the results with God. 

In those days the church was very jealous of the doc- 
trines held and preached by her ministers, and of the 
pure life and character required of them. Consequently 
there were many cases of investigation and discipline in 
the synod and in the Presbyteries. Some of these cases 
w^ere of long duration, and occupied much of the time of 
the church courts. Such were the cases of the complaint 
of the Rev. Hezekiah Balch against the Abingdon Pres- 
bytery, and the counter complaints of the Presbyterv 
against him, and of the Rev. Colin Lindsay in Orange 
Presbvterv. 



In North Carolina. 17 

The history of Mr. Lindsay in the church courts is a 
very remarkable one, and he had a very remarkable 
career. He was born in Scotland, and it is said of him, 
that he was a very scholarly man, of fine personal appear- 
ance, a good preacher, and that he commanded a great 
influence over his friends and adherents. He came from 
Scotland to North Carolina and united with Orange Pres- 
bytery in the year 1792, and from this time until 1803, 
when his ministerial career came to a close, he was 
almost continuously before the church courts, having 
been often admonished, several times suspended, and 
finally deposed from the ministry. During this period he 
served, at different times, the churches of Black River, 
Brown Marsh, Lumberton, Raft's Swamp, Shoe Heel 
(which is now Maxton), Gum Swamp and Bethel. 

A most wonderful story has been told in connection 
with this man's birth, and while there have been many 
variations of the story and of its explanation, yet the 
main facts have been abundantly corroborated, and many 
of the people of Robeson county accept it as absolutely 
true. The story, in short, is this: The Rev. Colin Lind- 
say was born after his mother had died and had been 
buried ! The explanation is as follows : 

Mrs. Lindsay was a lady of culture, refinement and 
considerable wealth, and in the natural course of events 
she was taken sick, and to all appearances she died. The 
family believing her to be dead, the necessary prepara- 
tions for burial were made, and in preparing the body for 
the tomb it was customary in Scotland to leave upon the 
person the individual jewelry, just as they had worn it 
while living, and, thus prepared, the body of Mrs. Lind- 
say was laid in the tomb and buried. On the night fol- 
lowing the burial a band of robbers, desirous of obtaining 
the jewelry, repaired to the grave and opened it. They 



i8 The Presbyterian Church 

removed the lid from the coffin and proceeded to remove 
a ring from a finger, and in doing this it was necessary 
to cut the finger, which drew blood, and immediately the 
dormant circulation in the body was restored and. signs 
of life were apparent. The robbers fled from the scene 
in terror, and in their flight they were observed by some 
persons passing by who immediately repaired to the 
grave and found Mrs. Lindsay struggling and crying for 
help! They quickly removed her from the open grave 
and tenderly bore her to her home, which was hardby, 
and delivered her to her amazed and dumbfounded 
family! In a short time, it is said that Mrs. Lindsay 
recovered from the shock, and soon after this occurrence 
the Rev. Colin Lindsay was born ! 

In those days the church by no means neglected the 
great cause of education. The doctrine was held by our 
fathers that wherever a Presbyterian settlement existed 
and a pastor was located, there next to the church should 
be a school, and there were quite a number of excellent 
schools scattered throughout the State. The oldest of 
them was perhaps "Queen's Museum," afterwards called 
"Liberty Hall," in Charlotte, the charter of which was 
twice annulled by the King, and in which many stirring 
debates were held touching the great questions of the 
times, and doubtless among them the immortal Declara- 
tion of Independence. There was also the old "Grove 
Academy," in Duplin county, by the side of "Goshen" 
Church, which was perhaps the oldest Presbyterian 
church in the State. Here the Rev. Hugh McAden, the 
Rev. James Tate, and perhaps others preached and taught 
in the olden times. Then there were the famous schools 
of Caldwell in Guilford, of McCorkle in Rowan, of Hall 
in Iredell, of Wilson in Cabarrus, and others which were 
not a whit inferior in many respects to many seats of 



In North Carolina. 19 

learning much more pretentious in the present time. 
These classic schools educated many eminent men, and 
sent forth in their day many scholars of a high order. 
The University of North Carolina was founded in 1793 
under Presbyterian influences, and the majority of its 
principal teachers in early times were Presbyterians. It 
was demanded by our forefathers that all Presbyterian 
children should at least be taught to read, and we are 
told "not to be able to repeat the Shorter Catechism was 
a mark of vulgarity among the people who claimed a 
natural equality." It has also been said that "from the 
great efforts made by Presbyterian pastors and mission- 
aries in establishing and promoting education among the 
people at large, and from the deep conviction of the im- 
portance of some degree of education impressed upon the 
hearts of Presbyterian families, it came to be a fact that 
in the bounds of the original Presbyterian settlements in 
North Carolina, very few persons grew up unable to 
read intelligibly.'' It is doubtful if the succeeding gene- 
rations down to the present time, can produce the same 
evidences of careful teaching and training on the subjects 
of religion and education, notwithstanding the vastly 
increased facilities and advantages, that were apparent in 
Presbyterian Homes before and during the existence of 
the Synod of the Carolinas. 



CHAPTER 11. 

The Synod of North Carolina from the Time of Its 
Formation Until the Civil War. 

The first meeting of the Synod of North Carolina was 
held at Alamance Church, in Guilford county, on Thurs- 
day, Ocotber 7, 18 13. The following twelve ministers 
and three ruling elders were present : Rev. Messrs. David 
Caldwell, Robert H. Chapman, James W. Thompson, 
William Paisley, Samuel Paisley, Robert Tate, Mur- 
dock McMillan, John Mclntyre, James Hall, Samuel C. 
Caldwell, John M. Wilson, John Robinson, and Elders 
Hugh Forbes, John McDonald and William Carrigan. 

The Rev. Dr. James Hall preached the opening sermon 
on the text : " Go ye into all the world and preach the 
Gospel to every creature." The Rev. Dr. Robert H. 
Chapman was elected Moderator, and also elected the 
stated clerk of the synod. 

The synod was now fully organized, composed of the 
three Presbyteries of Orange, Concord and Fayetteville, 
and its territory embraced all of North Carolina and 
small portions of South Carolina and Virginia. 

The Presbytery of Concord was now the largest in 
membership, while the Presbytery of Orange was the 
largest in territory, stretching from the Yadkin river to 
the Atlantic Ocean. The three Presbyteries in whole 
consisted at this time of 31 ministers, 85 churches and 
about 4.000 communicants. 

For a long time after the organization of the synod 
the Presbyterian Church in North Carolina seems to have 



In North Carolina. 21 

been, in a large measure, "at ease in Zion," and yet some 
noble advances were made. From 18 12 to 1861 embraced 
a period of national peace and great material prosperity, 
and the institution of slavery was at its flood-tide. The 
institution of slavery was not near so profitable in North 
Carolina as it was in some other States, and the mere fact 
that a man owned slaves by no means rendered it unne- 
cessary for him to labor with his own hands, for indeed 
the master, in many respects, was often a harder toiler 
than any of his slaves; and yet slavery of itself was 
doubtless the occasion of much indolence among the 
people, and tended to foster a spirit of indifference to 
personal energy, and to high mental and moral attain- 
ments among the masses of the people. It is true that the 
church grew in those days, but it was more from the 
force of circumstances than from the energetic and syste- 
matic use of the abundant means at hand. There were 
many gracious revivals of religion throughout the coun- 
try, and a great deal of attention was given in Christian 
homes to the religious training of the negroes, but there 
seems not to have been any general religious awakening 
from the time of the great revival in i8oo-'3, until twenty 
or thirty years afterwards. New Presbyteries were 
formed, only soon afterwards to be dissolved. 

In 1824 the synod set off from Concord the Presbytery 
of Bethel, lying chiefly in York and Chester counties, 
South Carolina ; and at the same time the Presbytery of 
Mecklenburg was first formed, which was also dissolved 
in 1827. The Presbyteries of Roanoke and Morganton 
were formed in 1835, embracing practically the same ter- 
ritory now occupied by Albemarle and Asheville pres- 
byteries, and they were dissolved in 1840. 

Many noble opportunities for the expansion, develop- 
ment and growth of the Presbyterian Church were neg- 



22 The PRRsr.YTERTAX Church 

lected and lost, and other denominations came in and 
possessed much cf the land which naturally and rightfully 
belonged to the Presbyterians. 

In the early years of the synod, at the annual meetings, 
much of the time was consumed in discussing questions 
of law and order, and matters pertaining to the general 
interest of the church at large, rather than to the press- 
ing interests of the church at home, and in looking to 
evangelization of the vast unoccupied territory. The 
southern professorship at Princeton College was an 
object and a theme much discussed, and large sums of 
money were raised in the synod for its endowment and 
support, but there was no systematic plan of giving or 
of collecting money for the benevolent causes of the 
church, and scarcely any thing was done for home and 
foreign missions. 

In 1823 the following resolution was adopted: 

" Whereas the cultivation of missionary fields does 
afford a most important aid to the cause of missions, and, 
whereas, such fields might be conveniently cultivated 
within our bounds, either by individuals or congregations 
collectively : therefore 

''Resolved, That the members of this synod use special 
efifoTts with the churches under their care, to promote 
this laudable object." 

The cause of "Domestic Missions" was freely dis- 
cussed in the " Free Conversation," after the plan adopted 
by the Synod of the Carolinas, and a synopsis of which 
was published and placed on record, and various mem- 
bers of the synod were appointed as temporary supplies 
and. to do missionary work. About this time and long 
afterwards, aside from the faithful preaching of the 
Word — and the Word was faithfully preached by a noble 
set of men — there were no settled plans for overtaking 



In North Carolina. 23 

the vast destitutions in the synod. Each Presbytery was 
expected to do the best it could in looking after its own 
unoccupied territory, it now being held more and more 
by many of the brethren that the synod as a body could 
do nothing, beyond a strict interpretation of the law of 
"review and control." The annual meetings of the synod 
were greatly enjoyed socially by those who could attend, 
but the attendance was usually small, and in 1823 an 
annual collection was ordered to defray the expenses of 
the representatives, and a very strong resolution was 
adopted enjoining attendance. The business of the synod, 
aside from the discussion of questions of general interest 
to the church and matters pertaining to the welfare of 
societies and institutions of learning, was largely routine. 

In 1825 the Union Theological Seminary in Virginia 
began to be discussed, and the synod entered heartily into 
co-operation with the Virginia brethren for the formation 
and welfare of this school of the prophets, and it has 
nobly stood by the Seminary until this day. 

In 1835 Davidson College began to engage the earnest 
attention of the synod, and it has never ceased to be an 
object and a theme of deep and increasing interest, and 
to-day the interest still abides, and the college stands as 
a monument to the everlasting honor, praise and wisdom 
of our fathers, and is the pride and joy of all Presby- 
terians. 

In those days these institutions of learning especially 
consumed much of the time and attention of the synod, 
while the extension and development of the church, espe- 
cially in the destitute regions of the State, did not receive 
that attention, and were not urged to that extent that 
might have been supposed. But the foundations of great 
things in the future were being laid, and the building of 
these foundations were in safe hands, building slowly but 
surely. 



24 The Presbyterian Church 

In 1832 a very careful though not complete record of 
statistics is given, and this record shows 64 ministers, 127 
churches, 832 baptisms, 29 Sunday-schools, with more 
than 1,000 scholars, and the number of communicants 
was perhaps about 8,000. This shows a gain of 33 min- 
isters, 42 churches, and the membership about doubled 
in about twenty years. The reports for this year of 1832 
were very encouraging, great revivals of religion were 
enjoyed, especially in Concord and Orange Pres- 
byteries. It is said that 163 persons were added to 
Rocky River Church, 126 to Poplar Tent and Ramah, 
and 130 to Charlotte and Sugar Creek churches. It 
was estimated that there w^ere 2,000 conversions within 
the bounds of the synod, and that 600 of them were in 
the counties of Mecklenburg and Cabarrus. But the 
whole amount of contributions, raised in the synod and 
reported this year for the combined missionary, benevo- 
lent, temperance, Bible and tract societies was only 
$1,734, and of this amount %'J2y was contributed by a 
single church, the Milton Church, in Orange Presbytery. 

In 1840 there were 78 ministers and 137 churches in 
the synod, showing a steady gain in membership, if not a 
commensurate gain in contributions. 

About this time the synod was composed of a very able 
body of men, many of whom were excellent teachers and 
profound scholars, as well as able preachers of the 
Gospel. The roll at this time shows the names of the 
Rev. Drs. Caldwell, Caruthers, Graham, Harding, Lacy, 
McRee, McPheeters, Mitchell, Morrison, Phillips, Penick, 
Robinson, Smith and Wilson: and the Williamsons, the 
Pharrs, the Paisleys, the Mclvers, McQueen, McNair, 
McLean, Mclntyre, Stanford, Tate, Gretter, and a num- 
ber of others, besides many noble and influential elders 
who usually attended the church courts. 



In North Carolina. 25 

The great influence and abundant labors of these men 
in their day, their efforts in founding and fostering some 
of the institutions of learning which we now enjoy, and 
in laying deep and broad foundations for future genera- 
tions, as well as their fidelity in preaching a pure Gospel, 
deserve all honor and praise. 

In 1850 there were 90 ministers and 150 churches, 
showing a gain of 12 ministers and 13 churches in ten 
years, and during the next ten years, from 1850 to i860, 
there seems to have been a general awakening along all 
lines. 

In 1852 a special committee, of which the Rev. S. A. 
Stanfield was chairman, presented the following resolu- 
tion, which was adopted : 

" Resolved, That this synod will appoint one agent on 
each of the Boards of Foreign Missions, Domestic Mis- 
sions and Education, and that these agents be required to 
take into consideration the whole field committed to their 
supervision, and present at each meeting of synod a 
written report of all that is doing within the boundaries 
of the synod on the subjects generally assigned to them; 
and that the consideration of these reports shall be a 
special order at each meeting of the synod." 

This was a most important and far-reaching resolution, 
and proved to be the beginning of a new order of things. 
The benevolent causes of the church until now were man- 
aged and controlled by the boards of the General Assem- 
bly, which received and disbursed the greater part of 
the contributions made by the churches. The synod had 
grown weary of being lectured by foreigners on these 
subjects, and the question now arose. Why not employ 
our own agents and do this work ourselves? And from 
this time ever afterwards a new spirit was apparent in 



26 The PRKsnvTERiAN Church 

the synoil, and there was a marked increase of interest 
and contributions for all the benevolent causes. 

In the report on Foreign Missions for the year 1859 
we find the following remarkable statement: "Previous 
to the year 1852 there was no fixed and well organized 
plan of sustaining missions in this synod. No perma- 
nent agents were appointed, as we have them now, to 
advance the claims of the boards in our churches. The 
consequence was, that our attention was seldom directed 
to these vital questions, and our energies lay compara- 
tively dormant. Before this, no order of the day was 
ever made on our docket for an hour to be devoted to 
the consideration of missions. Often did our synod meet 
and adjourn without speaking a single word or hearing a 
single report for the furtherance of any one of the boards, 
only as it came from some agent from abroad. Far be it 
from your agent to intimate that these subjects were not 
dear to the ministers and elders that attended; they 
thought and prayed over them doubtless, but a mere 
glance at the minutes wall show that up to 1852 there 
was no regular organization in this body for the perma- 
nent furtherance of the boards." 

The author of the above report was the Rev. Archibald 
Baker, who further shows, as a result of the resolution 
adopted in 1852, that the contributions for Foreign Mis- 
sions had increased more than $3,000, and for Domestic 
Missions the amount contributed in 1855 ^^'^s $1,714, and 
in 1859 t^"*^ amount collected and expended was $6,424. 

Another result attributed to the adoption of the reso- 
lution of 1852 as a decided step in the progress of the 
church was the establishment as the synod's organ in 
1857 of the " North Carolina Presbyterian." 

This paper was first published in Fayetteville, N. C, 
the first number being issued in January, 1858. The min- 



Ix XoRTH Carolina. 27 

utes of synod contain frequent resolutions of endorse- 
ment and commendation of the paper during all these 
years of its history. It has been an agency well nigh 
indispensable for the building up of the interests of the 
synod, and forwarding the institutions under its care. 
The first editor of the paper was the Rev. George 
McNeill, a brilliant and talented man, who died in 1861. 
The Rev. Willis Miller was associate editor with Mr. 
McNeill, and had charge of the paper for a time after 
his death. They were succeeded by the Rev. James 
McNeill as editor and the Rev. John M. Sherwood as 
associate editor. The Rev. James McNeill was a brother 
of George McNeill, and was the colonel of the Fifth 
North Carolina Regiment of Cavalry, and was killed 
while leading his regiment in a charge near Petersburg, 
Va., on March 31, 1865. The Rev. Mr. Sherwood then 
became the sole editor and owner of the paper until his 
death, in 1872. The paper was sold, and for a short time 
the Rev. Dr. H. G. Hill was editor as well as part owner. 
The paper was then transferred to Wilmington, N. C, 
and the Rev. T. L. De Veaux became editor, which posi- 
tion he held until his death, in 1876. He was succeeded 
for a short time by the Rev. Dr. Joseph R. Wilson as 
editor, and ^Ir. John ^IcLaurin as business manager. 
For a short time the Rev. J. ]\I. Rawlings was editor, in 
connection with Mr. McLaurin. The paper then became 
the property of Mr. John McLaurin, and he was the sole 
editor until 1898. He kept the paper for the synod and 
made it a strong arm of the church, and the synod will 
never cease to owe to him a debt of gratitude for his 
long and faithful service. 

In 1898 he sold the paper to a joint stock company, and 
the Rev. A. J. McKelway, D. D., became the editor. The 
paper was removed to Charlotte, N. C, and launched 



28 The Presbyterian Church 

upon a wider mission as a paper for the whole church, 
and the name was changed to " The Presbyterian 
Standard." Dr. McKelway was a ready, vigorous and 
forcible writer, and few^ men ever w'ielded a pen with 
more clearness and power. He retired as editor in 1905, 
and for a year the Rev. Messrs. T. J. Allison and W. T. 
Waller had charge of the paper as associate editors, and 
they were succeeded by the Rev. Dr. P. R. Law and Rev. 
Dr. R. C. Reed, as editor and associate editor, who have 
charge of the paper at the present time. May it ever live 
and prosper, as it has lived and prospered in the past, as 
a mighty power for the extension of Christ's kingdom 
and -the evangelization of the State. 

In i860 the synod met at Statesville, N. C. The Rev. 
R. H. Lafiferty was Moderator, and 61 ministers and 50 
ruling elders were present. The synod at that time was 
composed of 3 Presbyteries, 92 ministers, 184 churches 
and a membership of about 15,600. 

When this meeting of the synod adjourned at States- 
ville, N. C. October 27, i860, the members of that body, 
perhaps, did not even dream, much less think, that the 
last meeting of the Synod of North Carolina, under the 
old system and in connection with the old assembly, had 
been held ; that the last hymn ^had been sung and the last 
prayer offered, and that a national crisis was at hand, 
and that before they should meet again the whole country 
would be in the throes of an unprecedented civil war! 
The dreadful war between the States (1861-1865), like 
a storm-cloud had been gathering for a number of years, 
and at length it suddenly burst upon the country in all 
its pitiless fury, and deluged the whole land with blood, 
and subjected the Church and the State to the most dis- 
tressing circumstances, heartrending scenes and bitter 
memories. 



In North Carolina. 29 

It is not within the scope of this book to dwell upon 
that period, or to attempt a description of the deprivations 
and sufferings of the people, at home or in the army, 
during those dark and troublesome times. It is left to 
the faithful historian of the State and of the nation to 
tell the fearful story; and yet we must inquire into the 
welfare, progress and development of the church during 
and after those dreadful vears. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Synod of North Carolina During the Civil 
War and the Reconstruction Period. 

On November i, 1861, the Synod of North CaroHna 
being convened in Raleigh, the following preamble and 
resolutions on the state of the country were adopted : 

" Whereas the country is involved in a bloody interne- 
cine war, the desolations of which threaten our citizens, 
and the sacrifices of which have affected the church of 
our beloved State; and 

" Whereas by the tyranny and usurpation of the gov- 
ernment at Washington, the safeguards of the Constitu- 
tion have been broken down, threatening all that is dear 
in civil liberty and all that is precious in the inheritance 
received from our fathers ; and 

" Whereas the several Presbyteries composing this 
synod have in view of these deeds, as well as in view of 
the extraordinary endorsement of them by the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of the United 
States, requiring us and our churches to approve and to 
pray for the success of measures so tyrannical and iniqui- 
tous, have formally and solemnly dissolved all connection 
with said General Assembly, declaring, however, their 
steadfast adherence in all respects to the Confession of 
Faith, Catechisms, Form of Government, Book of Disci- 
pline and Directory of Worship of the Presbyterian 
Church, and have severally appointed delegates to meet 
at Atlanta, Ga., and, with other commissioners from the 
several Presbyteries of the South, then and there to con- 



In North Carolina. 31 

stitute and form a General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church for the Confederate States of America : therefore, 
in the fear of God and under a solemn sense of duty, be it 
"Resolved, by the Synod of North Carolina, i. That 
the synod intelligently, cordially, solemnly approves the 
action of its several Presbyteries in the premises. 

2. That the synod, set and appointed by her Divine 
Head as a witness for the right and for truth, deeply, 
truly sympathizes with the State and with the Confede- 
rate States in their present righteous struggle, and cor- 
dially approves their action in asserting and maintaining 
their sovereignty and severing the ties that bound us and 
them to the late United States of America. 

3. That the synod regards the present war on our part 
as a war of defense, commending itself to our people's 
efforts, prayers and hearts, as a hallowed though stern 
contest for sacred rights, involving homes and altars, 
liberty and religion, and to it we solemnly, prayerfully 
commit our persons and efforts and energies and prop- 
erty, our sons and lives. 

4. That the synod recognizes, and here with gratitude 
records the tokens of Divine favor extended to our strug- 
gling, bleeding country, leading our hosts in the day of 
battle, shielding them under fearful peril, and giving 
them brilliant victories, for all of which we desire to 
present fervent and unceasing thanksgivings. • 

" 5. That the synod would embrace this momentous 
crisis in our country's history, to urge pastors, elders, 
private Christians and our whole people to the offering of 
unceasing prayers in behalf of the Confederate States, in 
their present noble struggle in defense of constitutional 
liberty, beseeching our Covenant God and Father to 
lead our armies, to drive back our enemies, and early to 



32 The Presbyterian Church 

enable us in His fear and love to achieve a new nation's 
greatness." 

The foregoing paper is here recorded in full purely as 
a matter of history, and to show the mind of the church 
in view of the great struggle. 

On December 4, 1861, at Augusta, Ga., the Southern 
General Assembly was formed, and the immortal address 
by Thornwell and the sermon by Palmer on that occasion 
have gone into history, and fully explain the causes from 
a Presbyterian standpoint of the great disruption and 
struggle. Thousands gave their lives for principles and 
for a cause which they sincerely deemed to be just and 
righteous, and time alone will prove the true character of 
those principles, and whether or not the thousands gave 
their lives in vain. In the providence of God the terrible 
war gave ample proof that the best soldiers, as a rule, 
are Calvinists, and true to their principles and deep con- 
victions, the ministers, their sons and the sons of their 
charges, nobly bore their full share of the awful burdens 
of the times, and they have left to their descendants a 
history of untarnished honor in war and in defeat, and 
full of almost unparalleled examples of deprivation, suf- 
fering, hardship, heroism and bravery, of which they 
well may be proud. 

In 1862 the resolution calling for the appointment of 
agents on benevolence and adopted in 1852 was amended, 
and the Rev. Messrs. J. Rumple, J. M. Sherwood, Neill 
McKay and C. K. Caldwell were appointed agents o'i 
Foreign Missions, Domestic Missions, Education and 
Publication, respectively; but the contributions to these 
causes were small and wholly inadequate to meet the 
urgent demands. It was said in the address to the 
churches that "the public mind was powerfully agitated 



In North Carolina. 33 

and in general preoccupied with public intereits, to the 
partial or total exclusion of their religious concerns." 
And yet, "an unwonted spirit of prayer connected with a 
profound and growing sense of dependence on the favor 
of Divine Providence" was believed to prevail among the 
people, and was apparent in the prayer meetings and 
church services, which were well attended. The awful 
realities of war were now pressing hard upon the people, 
and the interests of the army chiefly engaged the atten- 
tion of the church as well as the State. 

At this meeting of synod the Rev. Neill McKay offered 
a resolution that each Presbytery appoint three men to 
collect and disburse funds for the education of the chil- 
dren of deceased soldiers, and this was done to a consid- 
erable extent until the close of the war. The synod in 
those days did nobly in its heroic efforts amidst confu- 
sion and conflicting duties, to meet the demands of the 
times. The waste places at home, and especially the 
army, were crying for help and greatly needed the min- 
istrations of the Gospel, and many of the ministers 
entered the army as chaplains, while the synod bade them 
God-speed, and at the same time did everything possible 
in every department of Christian work. 

At this time Orange Presbytery had in its employment 
one evangelist and six missionaries; Concord had one 
evangelist and five missionaries, and Fayetteville had five 
missionaries, and these brethren did a noble work, but 
they could not begin to supply the vacant churches and 
destitute fields. 

In 1863 the Rev. John M. Sherwood, in his report, said, 
" We cannot hope to supply our feeble churches and mis- 
sionary fields with the preached Word, as we would 
gladly do, while the war continues. We rejoice to know 
that something has been done. The work has not been 



34 The Presbyterian Church 

overlooked by the Presbyteries. In all of them efforts 
have been made to i^upply, as far as possible, the most 
pressing wants of our people. The wants of the army 
have been considered, and much has been done to supply 
our soldiers with the preached Word. There are at 
present eight members of this synod engaged in the 
regular work of the chaplaincy, viz. : The Rev. Messrs, 
Drury Lacy, E. H. Harding, H. B. Pratt, R. B. Ander- 
son, J. W. F. Freeman, Colin Shaw, David Fairley, J. H. 
Colton, and until recently, J. M. Sprunt, who has been in 
the work from the commencement of the war." 

In addition to the regular work of these brethren, all 
of the Presbyteries enjoined it upon their members to 
give a portion of their time to the army, and many of 
them cheerfully responded to the call. Among the last 
acts of the synod of 1863 was to proclaim and recom- 
mend a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer, to be ob- 
served in earnest prayer to God on behalf of the afflicted 
country. 

In 1864 the synod met in Greensboro, and very little 
was done except the ordinary routine business. The most 
important acts, however, of this meeting were the formu- 
lation and adoption of an address to the churches and a 
paper on the state of the country. In the latter some of 
the terrible results of the war are enumerated, "calling 
loudly for humiliation and prayer," and some of the 
tokens of the Divine favor are gratefully noted and 
acknowledged," calling for devout gratitude and thank- 
fulness," and while still believing in the justice of the 
cause and the injustice of the oppression, the synod again 
proclaimed "that as humiliation and confession may well 
be accompanied with thanksgiving and praise," that 
another day of humiliation and prayer be observed, as 
well as thanksgiving and praise, in view of the past his- 



In North Carolina. 35 

tory and present prospects alike of the country and of 
the church. The day appointed, November i6, 1864, was 
observed, and the people humbly and devoutly prayed to 
God that the cruel war might cease, and that the banner 
of peace might once more wave over the land. And 
before the next meeting of the synod the prayers of the 
people were answered, and the awful conflict, covering a 
period of four years, was ended, and had passed into 
history. 

During these four years of war the Presbyterian 
Church in North Carolina gained only eight ministers 
and five churches, and lost more than 2,000 communi- 
cants ! Of course the loss consisted largely of young 
men, in the prime of life, who were the hope of the church 
and who had fallen in battle, or who had died in prison 
or from disease and exposure on the field. 

After the war was over the synod met in FayetteviUe 
October 25, 1865, and intense anxiety, not to say deep 
disappointment and discouragement, was written upon 
every face and expressed in every tone. Indeed, the war 
was over, for which all were thankful, but the hearts of 
the people were sad ! Their property was gone, their 
homes were desolate, their beloved and precious dead 
were silent, and confusion, demoralization and lawless- 
ness were seen in everything and reigned everywhere. 
The institution of slavery was forever ended, and the 
negroes were free; but this great population of ignorant 
creatures had been freed and left by the victors in arms 
to shift for themselves, and they were homeless, helpless 
and dependent, and, to meet this new condition of things 
grave and perplexing questions arose on every hand. 
What could the synod do? What better could it have 
done than to seek the help of the Lord? Therefore the 
svnod resolved: 



36 The Presbyterian Church 

" Whereas, in times of rebuke and confusion, desola- 
tion and fearfulness, it is the duty of the people of God 
to draw near to their King and acknowledge the justice, 
holiness and goodness of His providential dealings with 
them, the synod hereby appoints a day of fasting, humilia- 
tion and prayer, that life may flow with new vigor from 
the great head of the church, to all the members thereof, 
and that the rulers of the land may be guided to wise 
counsels for its benefit." 

In the Narrative on the State of Religion the synod 
said, after deploring the increase of the evils of the times, 
" We now need an unusual amount of grace, if we would 
successfully resist the tide of iniquity which is rolling in 
upon us like a flood." 

The people had now entered upon that period which 
is commonly called the " Reconstruction Period." 

This period lasted about ten years — until about 1875 — 
and for several years immediately after the war the peo- 
ple, in many respects, suffered as much, if not more, from 
misrule and corruption, than during the war. It is true 
the suffering was of a different character, for the horror 
of the war could scarcely be repeated or surpassed, but 
these horrors cv^ere followed by a reign of terror which 
tried men's souls. The people had to endure for a time 
a military government, administered by aliens to the 
Commonwealth, and by men who were not in sympathy 
with those who suffered. They had to endure the in- 
tense bitterness engendered by bad men and by political 
factions, and they were made to feel the heavy iron heel 
of arbitrary force, and to drink the bitter dregs of some 
of the results of war. They were compelled to endure 
the arrogance and insolence of many of the enfranchised 
negroes, who had suddenly been raised, politically, as the 
peers of their former masters. They were without money, 



In North Carolina. 37 

except Confederate money, which was worthless, and 
they had to pay or promise to pay high prices for every- 
thing, and to depend upon domestic help and farm labor 
which was utterly unreliable and almost worthless. And, 
besides all this, a spirit of demoralization, disorder and 
lawlessness was abroad in the land, rendering social life 
miserable and unsafe. The people of God, many of whom 
were in deep poverty and sorrow, met these reverses of 
fortune and endured these trials in a manner and spirit 
manifesting the grace of patience as none but the people 
of God could do, and which is worthy of the admiration 
and praise of all people in all ages. 

In 1866 the synod enjoined it upon Christian fathers 
and mothers to look specially to their own children, and 
to teach them the fear of God and obedience to lawful 
authority; and in 1867 the address to the churches was 
full of affectionate counsels and admonitions, calling the 
people to prayer and to arise and rebuild the waste places, 
and urging them to the support of evangelists and mis- 
sionaries. 

About this time there were only five home missionaries 
regularly employed in the synod, and not more than 
$1,000 was contributed for Domestic Missions, and the 
aggregate membership of the church was about 15,000. 
But, from this time on, the leaven of hope and activity 
began to work, the contributions increased, and the great 
need of evangelization soon became the chief theme of 
discussion in all the Presbyteries. 

In 1868 the Presbytery of Wilmington was set off from 
Fayetteville, with the following ten members, viz. : Rev. 
Messrs. H. A. Munroe, James Kelly, Colin Shaw, S. C. 
Alexander, D. B. Black, H. L. Singleton, B. F. Marable, 
J. M. Sprunt, L. McKinnon and S. H. Isler. The first 
meeting was held in Wilmington, N. C, November 21, 
1868, in the house of Mr. Patrick Murphy. 



38 The 1*resbyterian Church 

The Rev. S. C. Alexander says, in his httle book called 
" Miracles and Events," that '' Wilmington Presbytery 
was organized for the express purpose of evangelizing 
Eastern North Carolina." He says there was consider- 
able opposition to the movement, and that he "spent a 
whole night in prayer" before the meeting of the Pres- 
bytery, when these matters were discussed. He was the 
first evangelist of Wilmington Presbytery, a strong 
preacher, and a most ardent advocate for evangelistic 
work. He did a noble work in Eastern North Carolina 
at Black River, South River, Swansboro and Topsail 
from 1859 to 1873, when he removed to Mecklenburg 
Presbytery, and afterwards to the Synod of Arkansas. 

In 1869 the Presbytery of Mecklenburg was set off 
from Concord, with the following twenty-three members, 
viz. : Rev. Messrs. R. H. Morrison, J. E. Morrison, J. D. 
Hall, W. W. Pharr, John Douglass, Robert Burwell, A. 
W. Miller, G. D. Parks, J. C. Williams, R. Z. Johnston, 
William McDonald, R. B. Anderson, J. F. W. Freeman, 
R. N. Davis, J. S. Barr, J. J. Kennedy, N. Shotwell, Robt. 
H. Chapman, T. E. Davis, W. N. Morrison, H. H. Banks, 
William Graves and Jacob Flood. The first meeting was 
held in Morganton, N. C, October 16, 1869, in the parlor 
of Mrs. Robert Pierson. 

The formation of these two Presbyteries — one in the 
east and the other in the west — tended greatly to encour- 
age the synod and to further the interests of evangeliza- 
tion in the State. This year more than 1,000 copies of 
the Address to the Churches was printed in pamphlet 
form and widely distributed, and in that address it was 
said : " We ought to have in this synod at least eight or 
ten evangelists to labor and carry the banner of the cross 
outside of all our churches into the wide regions beyond, 
in the eastern and western parts oi the State. This is 



In North Carolina. 39 

the great and crying want of the church in this synod 
to-day." This shows the state of feeUng in the church in 
1869, and from 1870 to 1875 the state of the country 
gradually became more settled and peaceful, and the 
church began to realize as never before the great need of 
evangelization. The number of Home Missionaries and 
evangelists rapidly increased in all the Presbyteries, as 
veil as the contributions for their support, and a great 
deal of aggressive and effective work was done during 
these years. But the plan of overtaking the destitutions 
and planting Presbyterianism where it had never been 
known, was confined solely to the efforts of each individ- 
ual Presbytery, in looking after its own territory, until 
the great synodical movement was inaugurated. 



CHAPTER IV. 

The Origin of Synodical Home Missions in North 
Carolina. 

In October, 1875, ten years after the Civil War, the 
Synod of North Carolina, representing five Presbyteries, 
105 ministers 213 churches and 16,200 communicants, 
met in Greensboro, N. C. 

The active operations of the synod at that time, in all 
its departments of work, were conducted solely through 
agents, who were appointed upon the basis of the resolu- 
tion adopted in 1852, and who had the oversight of all 
the great causes of church work, and the most important 
causes were Foreign Missions, Sustentation, Education, 
Publication and Sabbath-Schools. The agent of Susten- 
tation, however, was charged with the oversight not only 
of Sustentation proper, but also of evangelistic work and 
the Invalid Fund, which were classed under the one 
general head of " Sustentation." 

The Rev. H. G. Hill, D. D., was the synod's agent of 
Sustentation in 1875, ^^d from his report that year it 
appears that less than $8,000 was raised in the whole 
synod, including all the salaries of all the evangelists, 
for these three combined causes, and the amount reported 
to the assembly as contributed by the churches was only 
$2,264. 

On the approval of Dr. Hill's report, the following 
resolution was adopted. It is not stated in the record 
who offered this resolution, but it is probable that it was 
offered by Dr. Marable, Dr. Rumple or Dr. Hill, and it 



In North Carolina. 41 

was the first key-note to the future rise and progress of 
synodical missions in North Carohna : 

" Resolved, That the whole subject of the absolute and 
relative aggressiveness of the Presbyterian Church in 
North Carolina be referred to a committee, with the in- 
struction to consider it, and if it be found that our whole 
duty has not been performed, said committee shall indi- 
cate the causes of said delinquencies and point out the 
remedy." 

The following committee was appointed : Rev. Messrs. 
J. Rumple, B. F. Marable, R. Z. Johnston and Messrs. D. 
H. Morrison and George Allen. 

The next year (1876) the synod met in Fayetteville, 
and the report of the Committee on Aggressiveness was 
heard, and after much discussion and debate the matter 
was recommitted to the same committee to further con- 
sider the subject and report next year, and Mr. D. F. 
Cannon and Hon. D. Schenk were added to the com- 
mittee. 

In 1877 the synod met in Charlotte, and the Committee 
on Aggressiveness presented an abstract of the report 
prepared, which was read and accepted, and a full report, 
together with the abstract, were referred to a special com- 
mittee^ consisting of Rev. H. G. Hill, Rev. E. F. Rock- 
well and Dr. C. L. Hunter, to consider the same and 
recommend action for the synod. This committee recom- 
mended the following action, which was adopted : 

1. That the abstract furnished by the chairman of the 
original committee be published in the Appendix to the 
Minutes. 

2. That the report be returned to the chairman, Rev. 



42 The Presbyterian Church 

J. Rumple, with the request that he forward the facts and 
suggestions of the report, embodied in at least six articles 
under appropriate headlines, to the " North Carolina 
Presbyterian" for publication. 

The "Abstract" referred to above is as follows : " The 
Committee on Aggressiveness having considered the 
whole subject of the history and progress of the Presby- 
terian Church in North Carolina, would respectfully re- 
port that the Presbyterian Church was planted in North 
Carolina about the year 1736, in Duplin county, and 
shortly after this time in New Hanover county and Cum- 
berland, by Scotch Presbyterians. About the same time 
the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians settled in the western part 
of the State. They rapidly increased, until at the period 
of the Revolution, they numbered three or four thousand, 
and constituted about one seventy-fifth of the population 
of North Carolina. At this time^ after the lapse of a 
hundred years, they numbered 16,544 communicants in 
214 churches, with 113 ministers. The number of mem- 
bers has been doubled about every thirty-five or forty 
years, and at this time the communicants in the Synod of 
North Carolina numbered about one in every seventy of 
population, or, counting the Associate Reformed Pres- 
byterians and the colored Presbyterians, they numbered 
about one in every fifty of population. There has thus 
been both an absolute and relative increase of membership 
in our churches. The ratio of gain is about 33 per cent, 
on the increase of population. 

In comparison with other denominations, the Presby- 
terians have increased in an intermediate ratio. They 
have far exceeded all other denominations in the State 
except two, and these two, according to the numbers re- 
ported by them, have largely exceeded the Presbyterians. 
Looking upon the whole work done by our church since 



In North Carolina. 43 

its origin in the State we have reason to thank God and 
take courage for the future. 

At the same time, doubtless, we have failed to perform 
our whole duty. With our educated ministry, our intelli- 
gent, influential and wealthy members, we ought to have 
planted the Presbyterian Church in ever}^ corner of the 
Stale. Without pausing to particularize the various 
hindrances to our success, your committee would briefly 
point out the measures they deem proper for the future 
growth of Presbyterians. 

1. The first is the more general employment of evan- 
gelists. Let synods and Presbyteries and ministers press 
this work, enlighten the churches, and strive to secure 
more liberal contributions to this cause. 

2. The next is the more frequent efforts of our settled 
ministers to do missionary work in regions bordering 
upon their churches. 

3. An effort to preach more popular sermons and a 
greater endeavor to secure immediate results from their 
labors. 

4. An awakening of our eldership to a sense of the re- 
sponsibility resting upon them, especially in attending 
church courts and shaping the legislation of the church. 

5. The more systematic, orderly and punctual adminis- 
tration of our financial affairs under the control of the 
deacons. (Signed) J. Rumple, Chairman. 

The foregoing paper and action of the synod seem not 
to have been fully satisfactory, for on the next day the 
following resolution was adopted : 

" Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to 
report at the next meeting of synod, 'as to what can be 
done to promote the greater efficiency of evangelistic 
woik within our bounds.' " 



44 The Presbyterian Church 

It is not stated in the recoid who offered this resolu- 
tion, but it is ahogether probable that it was offered by 
the Rev. Dr. B. F. Marable, who was at this time one 
of the strongest debaters, as well as one of the strongest 
advocates for aggressive evangelization in the synod. 
The Moderator appointed as the committee to consider 
this matter the Rev. ^Messrs. B. F. Marable, H. G. Hill, 
J. W. Primrose, G. D. Parks and B. L. Beall. 

Perhaps one of the greatest hindrances to aggressive- 
ness in evangelistic work at this time was the confusion 
produced in the minds of many of the brethren by the 
different views held and advocated as to the nature, war- 
rant and functions of the evangelist. Consequently a 
committee had been appointed at the last meeting of 
synod to bring in a report on this subject. The Rev. 
John W. Primrose v;as chairman of this committee, 
which reported the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

"Resolved, That in the judgment of this synod, a 
scriptural evangelist is just a presbyter commissioned to 
preach the Gospel without pastoral charge, wherever in 
the judgment of the Presbytery his services may be 
needed for the conversion of sinners, and entrusted by 
the Presbytery with just so much of the joint power as in 
each case may be lawful and expedient." 

Dr. Primrose was an evangelist of Orange Presbytery, 
in the eastern part of the State, from 1871 until 1880, and 
under his labors the churches of Tarboro, Nahalah, Lit- 
tleton and Rocky Mount were organized. He then became 
pastor of the Oxford, Shiloh and Grassy Creek churches, 
and afterwards, for six years, he w-as pastor of the 
Second Church in Wilmington, and in 1891 he returned 
to his first love, the evangelistic work, having accepted 



In North Carolina. 45 

a call from the Synod of Missouri. He died at Green- 
ville, Miss., February 13, 1907. His varied and fruitful 
labors were crowned with abundant success. He was a 
fine scholar, a forcible writer, preacher and debater, an 
organizer and a teacher of youth, and he died beloved and 
honored in the midst of abundant labors. In the Synod 
of North Carolina in his day he ranked with Hill and 
Marable, Alexander and Rumple and others in their noble 
fight for aggressiveness in overtaking the destitutions. 

In 1878 the synod met in Goldsboro, and the Commit- 
tee on "What can be done to promote the greater effi- 
ciency of Evangelistic Work in our bounds," made its 
report, which was received. After considerable discus- 
sion the whole subject was again recommitted to the com- 
mittee, with the exception of the first item of the report, 
with the instruction to report next year. The Rev. Dr. 
Rumple was added to the committee, and the first item 
of the report which was adopted was as follows : 

" That synod does most earnestly urge upon those 
Presbyteries having destitute territory that they employ 
each at least one evangelist for his entire time." 

In advocating the adoption of this resolution, the Rev. 
Dr. Hill took the advanced ground that each Presbytery, 
regardless of destitute territory, needed and should em- 
ploy at least one evangelist. This position met with 
strong opposition, and called forth a warm debate, but 
the leaven was working and the time was not far distant 
when this very position became the settled policy of the 
church. 

The following resolution was also adopted at this 
meeting : 

'' Resolved, That the synod shall hold a synodical mis- 



46 The Presbyterian Church 

sionary meeting on Friday night of each session; that 
the agent, in addition to reading his report, be directed 
to secure speakers to make addresses on the subject, and 
tliat a collection, in connection with these services, be 
taken for this cause." 

In 1879 ^^^^ synod met in Statesville, and the Rev. Dr. 
^larable, the chairman of the Committee on "What can 
be done to promote the greater efficiency of Evangelistic 
Work in our bounds," was absent. The committee, 
however, submitted a report, which was laid on the table, 
but the following resolution was adopted: 

" Resolved, That the synod hereby appoint a synodical 
agent of evangelistic labor, to consider and report an- 
nually on white and colored evangelization in its bounds." 

By this action the cause of evangelistic labor was sepa- 
rated from the general cause of Sustentation, and it now 
became the object of general interest and the subject of 
much discussion in the church courts. 

The Rev. Charles M. Payne was elected the first agent 
of Evangelistic Labor, and on the evening of his appoint- 
ment, October 24, 1879, the first synodical home mis- 
sionary meeting ui North Carolina was held. These were 
long steps in advance of anything done as yet along the 
line of "aggressiveness' in overtaking the destitutions. 

In 1880 the synod met in Raleigh, and the agent of 
evangelistic labor, Rev. C. M. Payne, made his first 
report. A summary of this report will show the vast 
destitution of Presbyterian churches and Presbyterian 
preaching in North Carolina at that time. 

In Orange Presbytery alone there were 18 counties 
which had no Presbyterian church within their bounds, 
and nine counties had only one church each, making 27 



In North Carolina. 47 

counties in one Presbytery alone almost entirely destitute 
of the Gospel through our church. 

The synod at this time had five Presbyteries, 226 
churches, and 18,356 communicants, and it included 
within its bounds 94 counties. Of these 94 counties 29 
had no Presbyterian church, 24 had only one each, making 
a total of 53 counties in the State almost totally destitute 
of Presbyterianism. And for this vast field there were 
just two evangelists, Rev. Messrs. S. C. Alexander and 
J. H. Thornwell, employed for their w^iole time, and five 
others who gave as much as one-fourth of their time to 
the work, but principally in old fields and not in purely 
missionary territory. And the total amount contributed 
in the synod for evangelistic work was not quite $2,300. 

This report disclosing these facts necessarily called 
forth ''considerable discussion," and doubtless awakened 
in the minds and hearts of the brethren the stern fact that 
these conditions must be met, and met heroically. Con- 
sequently many were the ways and means suggested and 
devised, but as yet the remedy seemed to lie within the 
province of each Presbytery to act for itself. Therefore 
the following resolution was adopted : 

" Resolved, That the Presbyteries be urged to place 
evangelists in their destitute fields ; that the settled minis- 
ters be urged to do as much missionary work as possible, 
and that the churches be urged to give freely to this ex- 
ceedingly important cause." 

This resolution was offered by the Rev. Dr. L. McKin- 
non, who at that time was one of the most active and 
vigorous members of the -synod, and he very strongly 
advocated the plan as one remedy for overtaking the des- 
titutions ; that the settled ministers, especially in the 
towns and cities, become missionaries, to the extent of 



48 The Presbyterian Church 

giving an occasional Sunday and several days in the week 
during a month to the great work outside of their own 
congregations. 

It would seem that almost every possible suggestion 
had now been made to the Presbyteries, and the ministers, 
elders, deacons and membership of the churches had been 
repeatedly urged to put forth their best endeavors along 
the line of aggressiveness, in overtaking the destitutions ; 
and while a great deal had been accomplished, yet "much 
land remained to be possessed." 

In 1881 the synod met in Salisbury, and this meeting 
marks an era in the history of the Presbyterian Church 
in North Carolina. 

The agent of Evangelistic Labor made his report, which 
was approved, and it appeared from the report that the 
resolutions adopted last year had not been without sub- 
stantial results, especially among settled ministers who 
had done much missionary work. 

A paper was now offered, undersigned by the Rev. 
Messrs. H. G. Hill, L. McKinnon, D. E. Jordan, W. E. 
Mclllwaine and C. M. Payne, touching the supply of the 
destitutions of the synod by synodical effort. 

Attention is called to the names attached to this paper. 
These names, together with B. F. Marable, J. Rumple, J. 
W. Primrose and others, among whom were S. C. Alex- 
ander, G. D. Parks, F. H. Johnston and J. C. Alexander, 
arid the elders, George Allen, B. F. Hall and others, 
represent some of the leading spirits in the early rise of 
the synodical movement. The names of the Rev. Dr. 
Hill and Mr. B. F. Hall have been intimately associated 
with the synodical movement from its very inception until 
the present time. 

The paper now offered presented an entirely new fea- 
ture from all previous suggestions in the missionary 



In North Carolina. 49 

operations of the synod. It raised the old questions of 
the rights, functions and prerogatives of the synod as a 
court or legislative body, and it naturally created ''much 
discussion." The paper met with strong opposition, and 
the debate continued at intervals for two or three days, 
the question at issue being, " Did the synod, as a body, 
have the right to conduct evangelistic work?" This 
question of long standing was now fought out and set- 
tled in the affirmative, and Synodical Home Missions zvas 
born! 

The paper having been carefully considered seriatim, 
amended and adopted, is as follows : 

" In view of the fact that there are in the bounds of 
this synod about 53 counties of the 94, and about 500,000 
people destitute, or nearly so, of any church ministrations 
of our faith and order; and as this destitution is so un- 
equally distributed among the Presbyteries, that some of 
them cannot possibly for at least a number of years 
occupy their destitute regions, the following scheme of 
missionary labor is presented to the synod for careful 
consideration, and, if found practicable, for adoption: 

''i. That this synod appoint two ministers to labor in 
the destitute regions of our bounds, and that Presbyteries 
comprising this synod be requested to authorize these 
ministers to labor in their bounds as evangelists. 

"2. That a committee, consisting of Mr. George Allen, 
of Orange Presbytery; Mr. William R. Kenan, of Wil- 
mington Presbytery ; Mr. S. H. Wiley, of Concord Pres- 
bytery ; Mr. E. T. McKethan, of Fayetteville Presbytery, 
and Gen. R. D. Johnston, of Mecklenburg Presbtery, 
be appointed to raise the sum of $3,000, not by ordinary 
church collections, but my special efforts among indi- 
viduals of means and such as feel an interest in this work. 



50 The Presbyterian Church 

"3. That those home missionaries appointed by synod 
are not to enter upon their work until the chairman of the 
committee appointed to raise the funds shall report to 
the chairman of the Committee of Synodical Evangelistic 
Labor that the necessary funds have been secured. 

"4. That Rev. C. M. Payne, Rev. H. G. Hill, D. D., 
Rev. J. Rumple, Rev. G. D. Parks and Rev. J. C. Alex- 
ander, or their successors in office as chairmen of Home 
Missions in their respective Presbyteries, be appointed a 
Synodical Evangelistic Committee to superintend the 
general conduct of this work, and^ if necessary, between 
the meetings of synod, fill vacancies by election. 

''5. That in order to prevent any conflict between Pres- 
byterial and Synodical rights and duties, these home mis- 
sionaries shall labor in any Presbytery only when invited 
by the chairman of Home Missions in that Presbytery, 
and then in conformity to the suggestions of the local 
authorities of said Presbytery." 

Thus synodical Home Missions was launched, and it 
was ordered that a committee of five, consisting of Revs. 
D. E. Jordan, L. McKinnon, C. M. Payne and Elders 
A. G. Neel and S. C. Rankin, be appointed to nominate 
the first synodical evangelists or home missionaries. 

This committee reported recommending the Rev. D. E. 
Jordan and the Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine. The report was 
adopted, and these brethren were duly elected as the first 
synodical missionaries. 

In 1882 the synod met in Asheville. The Rev. C. M. 
Payne, chairman of the new Synodical Evangelistic Com- 
mittee, made his report, which seemed to forecast a com- 
plete failure of the scheme of the synod. For the past 
year the success of the scheme depended upon the raising 
of $3,000 before the evangelists could enter upon their 
work, and a more serious question was to arrange for a 



In North Carolina. 51 

similar amount from year to year. Both the Finance and 
Evangelistic Committees used every means possible and 
labored faithfully to secure the required sum immediately 
after the last meeting of synod, and a considerable 
amount was raised, but not the whole amount. And in 
the meantime the Rev. D. E. Jordan had accepted and the 
Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine had declined the position of 
synodical missionary. The committee met in Salisbury 
February 7, 1882, and elected the Rev. L. McKinnon 
in the place of Mr. Mclllwaine, and resolved to renew 
their efforts. The committee met again in Raleigh Feb- 
ruary 24, 1882, and in the mean time the Rev. Mr. 
McKinnon had declined to accept the position of mis- 
sionary, and the Rev. Mr. Jordan had been hindered from 
entering the field on account of the failure to raise the 
required $3,000, and the Finance Committee reported 
that the amount already pledged had been promised con- 
ditionally, and that there was no prospect of raising the 
required $3,000 under the present plan. This committee 
claimed that another plan must be devised, which would 
provide for the future, and enlist the co-operation of the 
Presbyteries and the churches. It was said that the 
scheme had failed to enlist the endorsement and co-opera- 
tion of the Presbyteries, and had met with '^decided oppo- 
sition all over the synod, as being inexpedient and imprac- 
ticable." 

The Evangelistic Committee, after calling attention to 
the greatly increased interest and activity by the Presby- 
teries in the work during the past year, which was rightly 
attributed to the synodical movement, with deep regret 
asked to be discharged. The "movement" at present 
seemed to be a dismal failure, and its promoters were 
keenly disappointed and greatly discouraged, but it was 
not a failure — it had been born, and, like an infant, it 



52 The Presbyterian Church 

must needs be helpless and dependent for a time, but it 
had been boni and born to live. 

In 1883 the synod met in Wilmington. The Rev. C. 
IM. Payne tendered his resignation as agent of Evangelis- 
tic Labor, and the Rev. James C. Alexander was elected 
as his successor. 

Dr. Payne did a splendid work during the time of his 
being agent of Evangelistic Labor, and indeed he never 
ceased to be, as long as he lived, a man of power and a 
brother beloved in the synod. He was a man of com- 
manding personal appearance, endowed with fine intel- 
lectual qualities, and possessed a voice and manner as 
soft and gentle as a woman, and through his untiring 
efforts by preaching, visiting, letter-writing, persuasive 
manners, and general popularity, many souls were won 
for the j\Iaster and much was done in awakening the 
minds of the people and arousing interest in the great 
cause of missions. He was a staunch friend of the great 
Synodical Movement, which he helped to launch in 1881, 
until the time of his death, which occurred September 13, 
1900. 

During the time of the agency of the Rev. J. C. Alex- 
ander, after the retirement of Dr. Payne, the synod for 
several years was occupied largely with other things than 
the cause of Home ^Missions, especially with judicial mat- 
ters. 

Mr. Alexander was a man of great executive ability, 
and he worked faithfully and zealously for the great 
cause, which temporarily had received a backset, but 
which was destined to arise again, in due time with re- 
newed vigor and power. 

In 1884 the synod met at Winston, and the agent's 
report showed that 14 ministers were employed as evan- 
gelists by the Presbyteries for a part of their time; and 



In Xorth Carolina. 53 

that a net gain of eight churches and 270 members had 
been made during the past year ; but there still remained 
29 counties in which there was no Presbyterian church, 
and 24 counties in which there was but one church each. 

In 1885 the synod met at Reidsville, and this meeting 
was largely occupied with a judicial case. The agent of 
Evangelistic Labor, Rev. J. C. Alexander, was the Mode- 
rator of this meeting, and his report this year showed the 
work to be "prosperous and encouraging." 

At this meeting the Rev. J. Henry Smith, D. D., was 
appointed to deliver an address next year on the " Rise, 
Progress, and Prospects of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States," and the Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine was 
appointed to deliver an address on " The Duty of the 
Church in Securing a Larger Number of Ministers." 

The next year, in 1886, the synod met in Concord, and 
was still occupied with judicial matters. 

The Rev. Dr. Smith delivered his address on the " Rise, 
Progress and Prospects of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States," and the Rev. Dr. Hill delivered an 
address on " Ministerial Support," and both of these 
brethren received the thanks of the synod. 

At this meeting the Rev. J. C. Alexander laid down 
the work as agent of Evangelistic Labor, and the Rev. 
J. W. Primrose was elected as his successor. 

On November 15, 1886, soon after this meeting of 
synod, the Rev. J. C. Alexander suddenly passed from 
earth to heaven. He was a faithful preacher and a zeal- 
ous workman — practical, pointed, earnest and judicious. 
In Orange Presbytery, especially, he was a wise and 
trusted counsellor and a brother beloved. He was a man 
of deep convictions and steady purpose, and untiring in 
his efforts for the spread of the Gospel. For many years 
he was entrusted with the conduct of Home Missions in 



54 The Presbyterian Church 

Orange Presbytery, and the additional work of the synod, 
together with the cares of a large pastorate, were thought 
to be by his friends too heavy a burden to bear, and pos- 
sibly shortened his days. He did a noble work, and left 
behind him a noble record. He loved his God and his 
people, and his people loved him, and his end was perfect 
peace. 

In 1887 t^^^ synod met in Fayetteville, and continued to 
be much engaged with judicial matters. 

The Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine at this meeting, according 
to appointment, delivered his address on " The Duty of 
the Church in Securing a Larger Number of Ministers," 
and he received the thanks of the synod for the address. 

The closing words of the report of Dr. Primrose, now 
the agent of Evangelistic Labor, were as follows : " There 
is gratifying evidence of progress and increasing zeal in 
this department of labor throughout the synod." 

This being true, and yet no action being taken, and 
no effort being made to revise the plan and carry out the 
great principle adopted in 1881, was calculated to dis- 
courage many of the members of the synod, and conse- 
quently some of them, particularly the Rev. W. E. Mclll- 
waine, went away from this meeting of synod much dis- 
satisfied on account of what was not done, and deter- 
mined that something should be done at the next synod, 
looking to the evangelization of the State, either by 
Synodical Home Missions or by some other possible and 
feasible plan. And the next meeting of synod was des- 
tined to be a memorable one in North Carolina. 



CHAPTER V. 

The Inauguration of Synodical Home Missions in 
North Carolina and the ]\Ien of the Times. 

The meeting of synod held in Goldsboro in 1888, in 
many respects, was unquestionably one of the most re- 
markable meetings of the kind ever held in the State. 

It was remarkable from the fact that a ruling elder, 
for the first time in the history of the church, was elected 
Moderator, the Hon. A. M. Scales, who at this time was 
the Governor of North Carolina, was the Moderator of 
this meeting. It was remarkable from the fact that it 
was freighted with an unusual number of memorials, 
praying for relief and demanding great and important 
changes, and laying the foundation for great enterprises. 
It was also remarkable from the fact of the able and 
memorable speeches that were made, the amount of work 
accomplished, and last, but not least, the inauguration of 
Synodical Home I^Iissions. 

Another thing in connection with this meeting which 
was remarkable, was the calling of a convention in Golds- 
boro on the day before the synod met, October 23, 1888, 
to consider the interests of Home ]\Iissions. 

There is no record of this convention in the minutes 
of synod, but the facts are these: The Rev. Wilham E. 
Mclllwaine was one of the brethren who went away from 
the last meeting of synod at Fayetteville, feeling much 
discouraged on account of what was not done for the 



56 ThK pRKSnYTERIAN ChURCII 

cause of State evangelization, and it was he who con- 
ceived the thought of calling this convention. He wrote 
to the chairmen of the Home Mission Committees of the 
Presbyteries, he himself being the chairman in Mecklen- 
burg Presbytery, and sent to them the following call for 
the convention, which was duly signed by each of them. 

Synodical Home Missionary Convention. 

"After conference with a number of the friends of this 
cause in the synod, we the undersigned chairmen of the 
Home Missions Committee in our respective Presbyteries 
do hereby call a convention to meet in Goldsboro, N. C, 
on Tuesday the 23d of October (inst), for the purpose 
of giving this subject a more thorough consideration 
than it usually receives in the synod. The following pro- 
gram has been agreed upon : 

" The opening address — Rev. F. H. Johnston, D. D. ; 
addresses by each of the chairmen of the Home Missions 
Committees in the different Presbyteries, setting forth as 
briefly as possible the extent, needs, and prospects of their 
respective fields ; addresses of evangelists of Presbyteries, 
with the map of synod before them, in reference to their 
special work; a general discussion of the following sub- 
jects, in which all present shall be invited to participate — 

''i. Ought there not be a more equal division of the 
synod among the Presbyteries? 

''2. Would it not be advisable for the- synod, at the 
approaching meeting, to take steps to place at least one 
evangelist in its mission field? 

''3. What are some of the hindrances to this work in 
the Presbyteries and synod, and how can these be re- 
moved ? 



In Xorth Carolina. 57 

''4. What should be done to secure a thorough consid- 
eration of the subject of Home Missions at each regular 
meeting of synod? 

(Signed) Alexander Sprunt, Orange Presbytery; 
R. B. Anderson, Concord Presbytery; 
H. G. Hill, Fayetteville Presbytery; 
P. H. Hoge, Wilmington Presbytery ; 
W. E. McIllwaine,, ^Mecklenburg Pres'y." 

The convention was held, and the foregoing program 
was fully carried out. A memorial was adopted to be 
presented to the synod the next day. x\nd a paper was 
prepared for this convention by the Rev. P. H. Hoge, 
D. D., on the "constitutionality of synodical evangelists." 
This paper was afterwards published in the " North 
Carolina Presbyterian," and it was a most able, con- 
vincing and unanswerable argument in favor of the great 
cause at issue in these times. But Dr. Hoge, perhaps, 
was not as familiar as some other members of this con- 
vention with the fact that this question and kindred topics 
had been discussed in the synod for years, and that the 
great principle touching these matters had been settled 
in 1881. Dr. Hoge and Dr. Sprunt became members of 
the synod in 1885, and at the present time they ranked 
with Drs. Hill, Marable, Johnston, Primrose, Mclllwaine 
and others as leading spirits in the great Synodical Move- 
ment. 

Dr. Mclllwaine had spent much of his time as a most 
successful evangelist, and, like Dr. Primrose and others, 
knew from personal experience and observation the great 
need of evangelists, and he had the joy and the satisfac- 
tion of seeing the convention which he had called a great 
success, and destined to be far reaching and blessed in 
its results, as one of the means of reviving and putting 



58 TiiE Presbyterian Church 

into operation the paper which he had signed and the 
plan adopted in 1881 for overtaking the destitutions by 
"synodical effort." He did a noble work for the synod, 
and especially for Mecklenburg Presbytery before leaving 
the bounds of his native State. He was intimately asso- 
ciated with almost every forward movement of the church. 
He was personally connected with the first ste^s taken at 
this meeting of synod and afterwards in founding the 
synod's Orphans' Home. He left the synod in 1892 for 
wider fields of usefulness, and at the present time is the 
president of the Alabama Presbyterian College for Men 
at Anniston, Ala. 

On the next day after this convention the synod met, 
and the following memorials were presented : One from 
the Evangelical Alliance of Wilmington, in regard to the 
State laws concerning temperance; one from the Chapel 
Hill Church, touching the interests of Presbyterianism at 
the University; one from the Presbyterian Lady Man- 
agers of the " Home and Hospital" in Charlotte, N. C. 
This memorial was referred to a commission of which 
the Rev. J. Rumple, D. D.^ was made chairman, on the, 
adoption of the following resolution offered by Rev. W. 
E. Mclllwaine : 

''Resolved, That in the judgment of this synod the 
time has come to take steps looking to the establishing of 
an orphans' home within our bounds, and that a commis- 
sion be appointed to take the whole matter in charge, 
to consider and execute whatever may seem wise and 
practicable in putting such an enterprise on a permanent 
basis." 

Thus it will be seen that the great enterprise of the 
Orphans' Home, now the joy and piide of the synod, 
was launched at this meeting. 




REV. W. E. M'lLWAiN, D. D. 



In North Carolina. 59 

The two other memorials presented related to the burn- 
ing and vital questions which had burdened the minds 
and hearts of some of the brethren for so many years — 
" How shall we overtake the destitutions of our State ?" 
One of these memorials was from Orange Presbytery, 
and the other one was from the Synodical Convention, 
and it is noted that both these memorials embodied the 
same thought, looking to the division of territory. 

The memorial from Orange Presbytery had its origin 
at the spring meeting of Presbytery, six months before 
the convention, and the meeting of synod, when a com- 
mittee of three — Dr. Johnston, Dr. Sprunt and Mr. W. S. 
Primrose — w-ere appointed to draft said memorial to the 
synod. It was presented to the Presbytery at the fall 
meeting by the Rev. Dr. Johnston and adopted. This 
Presbytery had felt for many years its deep responsibility, 
and its utter inability to overtake its destitutions, owing 
to its vast unoccupied territory, and much time and labor 
were spent at each meeting of Presbytery in discussing 
these matters. The Rev. Dr. Johnston had been elected, 
and was now serving as general evangelist for the Pres- 
bytery, and he, with others, w^as thoroughly convinced 
that old Orange ought to be divided, and that in some 
way the synod ought to share the responsibility in sup- 
plying the needs. 

The follow'ing is the memorial from Orange Presby- 
tery : 

'' The Presbytery of Orange respectfully memoralize 
the Synod of North Carolina to take into consideration 
the subjoined statement of the extent and present need 
of the evangelistic field within the bounds of the Presby- 
tery, and to take such action as its wisdom may suggest 
for the assistance and relief of the Presbytery in the 
prosecution of this great work: 



6o The Presbyterian Church 

"i. The Presbytery of Orange, the oldest existing Pres- 
bytery south of the Potomac, and mother of all the Pres- 
byteries which now compose this synod, is in territorial 
extent nearly as large as all the others combined. It em- 
braces about one-half the population of the State — not 
far from 700,000 souls, 482,000, or nearly two-thirds, 
being white. There are 44 counties and parts of coun- 
ties in the Presbytery, in 20 of which there is not a 
single organized church of our faith and order. With 
three exceptions^ these counties are massed together in 
the eastern part of the Presbytery, between the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railway and the Ocean. The Presbytery thus 
presents to view a territory about evenly divided by the 
railway mentioned, one-half of which, as to Presbyterian- 
ism, is missionary ground ; and this ground, occupied by 
our church, is nearly, if not quite, two-thirds of the en- 
tire missionary field of the synod — ^that is to say, Orange 
Presbytery has twice as large an evangelistic field for her 
share of labor as the other four Presbyteries together 
have. This disproportion in the extent in their respective 
fields of Home Mission labor and enterprise, is felt, 
justly, as we believe, to be a burden far beyond her 
strength by the mother Presbytery; and this synod, the 
only court which has, according to the constitution of the 
church, authority to determine the metes and bounds of 
the Presbyteries within her bounds, is respectfully asked 
to consider this matter, and, if it be possible, to equalize 
the shares of the Presbyteries respectively in, the work of 
Home Evangelization. 

''2. The Presbytery is moved at this time specially to 
present this appeal to the synod for the reason it has for 
believing its large unoccupied field to be one which in- 
vites a far more extensive planting of our church than 
it is possible for the Presbytery to accomplish with the 



In North Carolina. 6i 

resources at its command. Recent special exploration of 
the eastern district of the Presbytery has shown open 
doors which should be entered at once, and would be, if it 
were in the power of the Presbytery. It has done some- 
thing in this region in the last fifteen years. Half a 
dozen churches have been organized at promising points, 
one of which is already self-supporting, and two or three 
new fields of hopeful labor are at this moment being 
entered in counties which, until lately, had not heard the 
voice of a Presbyterian preacher. But other fields also 
remain to be occupied, and will remain thus, because of 
the sheer inability of the Presbytery to occupy. It has 
reached apparently the limit of its strength in keeping as 
it does now four or five evangelists in the field, and yet 
four or five more are sorely needed, if the Presbytery is 
to keep apace with the widening area of labor. The 
Presbytery therefore earnestly desires that the synod give 
this subject the consideration to which it seems to be en- 
titled, and, in its wisdom, suggest or initiate some mode 
of procedure which may relieve the Presbytery in the 
present emergency. Whether it shall be by a readjust- 
ment of the boundaries which define the existing Presby- 
teries, or by the erection of a new Presbytery, or by a 
scheme of synodical evangelistic labor, or by a co^nsensus 
of the Presbyteries, by which a practical co-operation in 
the work may be secured ; whether by any one, or by all 
these, or by any other feasible method, the Presbytery 
does not venture to say; but it does desire, and it hopes, 
that some way may be found for removing the dispropor- 
tionate and unequal burdens of the Presbyteries, and so 
far the more effective prosecution of the great work of 
State evangelization. 

(Signed) F. H. Johnston, Stated Clerk/' 



62 The Presbyterian Church 

On the same day, immediately after the noon recess, 
the memorial from the Synodical Convention was pre- 
sented as follows : 

" The committee appointed by the convention lately 
held in this city, in the interests of Home Missions, re- 
spectfully memoralize the synod to take suitable action in 
regard to the following matters: 

''I. That a committee be appointed to thoroughly con- 
sider the question of the more equal division of the terri- 
tory of synod among the Presbyteries, to report at the 
next meeting of synod, and to publish their report in the 
'' North Carolina Presbyterian" at least two months be- 
fore said meeting of synod. 

"2. In order to bring the subject of Home Missions 
prominently before the synod, to make a standing order 
to consider the subject embracing the causes of Susten- 
tation and evangelistic work, at 11 o'clock A. M. on the 
second day of its sessions, and to give this subject prefer- 
ence over all other subjects. 

"3. We also memoralize the synod to take the neces- 
sary steps at its present meeting to place at least one 
evangelist in its missionary field." 

The first and second sections of this memorial w^ere 
placed upon the docket, and the third section, which in- 
volved the very heart of the matters at issue, was referred 
to a special committee, consisting of the Rev. Messrs. J. 
W. Primrose, P. H. Hoge, Alexander Sprunt, H. G. Hill, 
J. M. Wharey and W. E. Mclllwaine. 

This was a strong committee of representative men, 
each Presbytery being represented, with Dr. Primrose 
as chairman, and on the morning of the next day — Octo- 
ber 26, 1888 — ^the following report was submitted to 
svnod : 



In North Carolina. 63 

" Your committee appointed to take into consideration 
and to report suitable action on the memorial of the Con- 
vention of Home Missions, touching the placing of at 
least one evangelist in the mission field of the synod, beg 
leave to report the following action for synod's adoption : 

"i. That synod grants the petition of the memorialists 
and agrees to place at least one evangelist in the field. 

"2. That a committee be appointed, with instructions, 
if the way be clear as to support, to select such evangelist 
or evangelists, to fix his salary and direct his labors until 
the next meeting of synod. 

''3. While laboring within the bounds of any Presby- 
tery he shall be under the direction of the Home Mission 
Committee of that Presbytery. 

''4. His powers within the bounds of any Presbytery, 
with reference to the reception of members, organizing 
churches, ordaining and installing elders and deacons, 
shall be only such as are conferred upon him by said 
Presbytery. 

(Signed) "J. W. Primrose, Chainnan" 

A battle royal was now on. The infant which had been 
born in 1881, and which had been asleep and gaining 
strength, had now awakened with increased strength, and 
almost matured vigor, and was demanding its right to 
exercise its powers. The same old questions of the con- 
stitutionality of synodical evangelists, the right of the 
synod to elect evangelists, and to elect evangelistic com- 
mittees with powxrs to act, had to be met, and they were 
met in a masterly debate. The opposition was strong, 
and the end of the conflict was not to be seen until 1891, 
but, for the present, the battle was fought and the vic- 
tory was won. 

No one who was present at this meeting of synod will 



64 The Presbyterian Church 

ever forget the masterly speeches delivered by many of 
the brethren who participated in the debate, especially the 
notable speech delivered by the Rev. Dr. B. F. Marable. 
At this late date it would be impossible to give a synop- 
sis, or even an adequate description, of that wonderful 
speech. It was full of wit, humor, pathos and sarcasm, 
and it bristled with illustrations, ludicrous and otherwise, 
and it was delivered with rare eloquence and telling 
power. It came spontaneously from a massive brain and 
a big heart, overjoyed at the prospect of synodical mis- 
sions becoming a reality, and it made a profound impres- 
sion. 

Dr. ■Marable was no ordinary man. He was notably 
an independent and original thinker, and possessed the 
power of concentrating his thought upon a subject in a 
remarkable manner, and of reaching conclusions step by 
step through ^ masterful power of analysis, which, when 
the conclusion was reached and the thought projected, 
seldom failed to convince his hearers. Some one, writing 
of him after his death, said : " Dr. Marable added to his 
analytical and logical powers a loftiness of conception 
that came from a lofty soul, and that lent a glow of fire to 
all that he said. He was not only a man of great intellect, 
but a man of great heart, and the heart warmed the 
speech that the intellect created. He thought great 
thoughts about God and eternity, about sin and retribu- 
tion, about grace and redemption, but these great thoughts 
were not the speculations of the mind, nor the imagina- 
tions of fancy, but the teachings of the Holy Spirit to a 
soul that was truly humble, because its thoughts and 
aspirations were turned upward to that which was greater 
than itself. He received the things of God with the faith 
of a little child. And while his intellect cut through the 
shallow sophistries that were urged against Divine truth 



In North Carolina. 65 

and revelation, yet when it came to that which was above 
the grasp of human comprehension, he simply wondered 
and adored." He became a Presbyterian from the Baptist 
Church in 1864, and it is said that the change wrought 
in his views was the result of a long and painful struggle, 
and having reached conclusions satisfactory to himself, 
he was always tolerant to those who differed with him, 
and he supported the principles he avowed most manfully 
unto the end. He calmly and painlessly passed to his 
reward on April 14, 1892. 

After the adoption of the report of the Committee on 
the Memorial of the Convention the following evangelistic 
committee, provided for in the report and to serve as a 
special committee for one year, was then appointed — viz. : 
Rev. Messrs. J. W. Primrose (chairman), Alexander 
Sprunt, R. B. Anderson, H. G. Hill, P. H. Hoge, W. E. 
Mclllwaine, and Elders A. M. Scales, M. W. Hill, J. W. 
McNeill, B. F. Hall and Rufus Barringer. 

The memorial from Orange Presbytery was referred 
to this committee to report at the next meeting of synod. 

Thus ended, so far as synodical missions were con- 
cerned, the most notable meeting of synod perhaps, ever 
held in the history of the church. The great question, 
''How shall we overtake our destitutions?" which had 
been discussed so long, had now culminated into a definite 
plan and purpose, and the great Synodical Movement or 
"effort," which hadi been paralyzed and slumbering for 
a number of years, had now become a reality and had be- 
gun its career, to move onward and upward for the glory 
of God and the salvation of multitudes in the old North 
State. 

But it now remained to put the work into practical 
operation, and to place the whole scheme upon a perma- 
nent basis. This necessarily would require time and labor, 



66 The Presbyterian Church 

as well as the profound study and wisdom of the com- 
mittee charged with this most important duty. 

One of the leading and active members of synod at this 
time, and until he left the synod in 1899, especially per- 
taining to all matters connected with Home Missions, 
was the Rev. P. H. Hoge, D. D. Soon after the meeting 
in Goldsboro the special Evangelistic Committee met in 
Raleigh. Dr. Hoge was made the secretary of the com- 
mittee, and continued to be after the committee became 
permanent, and it devolved upon him to conduct an ex- 
tensive correspondence and to decide many matters of 
importance. 

The memorial of Orange Presbytery had been carefully 
studied in connection with the distribution of territory, 
and at this meeting of the committee in Raleigh, Dr. 
Hoge proposed an overture to the synod to erect two new 
Presbyteries, to be named Raleigh and Asheville. The 
Mecklenburg members did not think the time had come 
for the formation of Asheville Presbytery, but the other 
new Presbytery was agreed upon, and was formed by the 
next synod, and named ''Albemarle." At this meeting of 
the committee Dr. Hoge strongly advocated the election 
of the Rev. W. D. Morton as synodical evangelist, which 
afterwards resulted in his election. Owing to the illness 
of Dr. Primrose, chairman of the committee, Dr. Hoge 
prepared and presented to the synod of 1889 at Char- 
lotte the report of the committee, outlining the plan of 
future work and recommending that the committee be 
made a permanent organization. He also prepared for 
the synod of 1891 an elaborate report on the future 
"Work, Policy and Organization" of the Synodical Home 
Mission Committee. 

It w^ill be noted in the minutes of the synod that each 
of the first three articles of that report was adopted on 




RtV. P. H. HOGE, D. D. 



In North Carolixa. ^^j 

a different day. Between the lines of that fact is to be 
read the unrecorded history of a great debate, in which 
the whole policy and plan of the committee was assailed 
and sternly fought by a strong but small minority of the 
synod. It largely devolved upon Dr. Hoge to defend the 
report before the synod, and as a result of the debate the 
policy of the committee was sustained by an overwhelm- 
ing majority. 

The first article of that report was as follows : 

" Synod recognizes that upon it and its Presbyteries is 
laid the responsibility for the evangelization of its terri- 
tory, so far as it can be done by the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States, and in humble reliance upon the 
Head of the Church receives this trust from His hand 
and pledges itself to its faithful prosecution." 

The adoption of this article firmly nailed to the mast- 
head the purpose of the synod to evangelize its territory 
without outside aid. When the General Assembly con- 
sidered the reorganization of its plan of Home Mission 
work, Dr. Hoge was sent by the committee to the Assem- 
bly at Macon, Ga., in 1893, to present the North Carolina 
plan before the Standing Committee of the Assembly; 
and although the Assembly's Special Committee presented 
a different plan, the Standing Committee recommended 
the North Carolina plan to the Assembly, and by the 
courtesy of that body Dr. Hoge was heard in explanation 
of the plan. It was adopted by the Assembly, and remains 
the essential policy of Home Mission work in the South- 
ern Presbyterian Church to this day. Again, in 1885, a 
Presbytery in Virginia overtured the Assembly to revert 
to the old plan of conducting Home Mission work. Dr 
Hoge was a member of that Assembly, and was made 
chairman of the Standing Committee on Home Missions, 



6S The Presbyterian Church 

and both the committee and the Assembly again sustained 
the North Carolina plan, which remains the plan of the 
Assembly to the present day. 

In 1889, at Charlotte, N. C, the Special Evangelistic 
Committee reported to synod the election of the Rev. W. 
D. Morton, D. D., as the first synodical evangelist in 
North Carolina, and that he had entered uf>on his work 
June 7, 1889. This was a happy selection — one that gave 
universal satisfaction — and was crowned with wonderful 
success. Dr. ]\Iorton himself made a report of his labors, 
which thrilled the synod, and w^as received with profound 
gratitude. He showed that from June the 7th to October 
the 7th, a period of exactly four months,, he had visited 
130 families, held 200 services, witnessed 114 confessions 
and renewals, added to the church 82 persons, baptized 
17 adults and 17 infants, ordained i elder and i deacon, 
and had collected $189 for the work. This report made a 
profound impression, and Dr. IMorton was commended 
to the people for their support, by their contributions and 
their prayers. 

The plan submitted by the committee for re-districting 
the whole territory, after a few changes, was adopted. 
By this plan the Presbytery of Albemarle was formed, 
and its first meeting was held in Goldsboro, N. C, 
November 20, 1889. 

The plan for the permanent conduct and support of the 
work was adopted — namely : "That a permanent commit- 
tee on synodical evangelization be constituted, the chair- 
man of which shall be the synod's agent of Evangelistic 
Labor, and which shall be composed of the chairmen of 
the Committee of Home Missions from each Presbytery, 
and one ruling elder from each Presbytery." For the 
support of the work it was recommended that a certain 
amount of money be apportioned to the Presbyteries an- 



In North Carolina. 69 

nually, to be raised quarterly, and that an annual collec- 
tion be taken by all the churches for the cause. 

Under this plan the Rev. Alexander Sprunt, D. D., 
was elected agent of Evangelistic Labor, and he was 
therefore chairman of the committee, and the committee 
thus constituted was composed of the foUovv-ing members : 
Rev. Messrs. Alexander Sprunt (chairman), D. I. Craig, 
C.A. Munroe, H.G. Hill, P. H. Hoge, W. E. Mclllwaine, 
and Elders Hon. A. M. Scales, I. H. Foust, Dr. J. W. 
McNeill, B. F. Hall, Gen. R. Barringer and Samuel 
Watkins. 

The work of the Special Evangelistic Committee ap- 
pointed at Goldsboro was now completed, and the com- 
mittee did their work wisely and well — all honor to them ! 

The great cause of Synodical Home Missions was now 
fully inaugurated, and having arisen to a permanent 
position in the economy of the church, we will attempt in 
the future pages of this book to trace its development 
and progress. 



CHAPTFR VI. 

The Progress of Synodical Home Missions in North 
Carolina, and the Men of the Times. 

In the Book of Wisdom it is written : " There is a 
time for every purpose under the heaven." God has His 
purpose, and His own time for every purpose; and not 
only so, but He has the right men in the right place, and 
at the right time, to meet every purpose. The eyes of the 
Synod of North Carolina at Wilmington in 1900 were 
turned toward the Rev. Egbert W. Smith, D. D., Rev. 
W. D. Morton, D. D., Rev. Alexander Sprunt, D. D., and 
others, as the right men who had appeared upon the scene 
of action at the right time. The efforts of the church had 
been crowned with wonderful success, and this meeting 
was characterized by intense enthusiasm. It will be 
remembered by the eloquent and stirring addresses made 
by these brethren and others, which were followed by the 
raising of nearly $2,000 on the floor of the synod for the 
cause of Synodical Home Missions ! The synod sang the 
long-metre doxology in grateful acknowledgment to God 
for His rich blessing. 

On motion of Dr. Alorton the Rev. E. W. Smith, D. 
D., was immediately and unanimously elected General 
Synodical Evangelist, in addition to Dr. Morton. The 
Rev. Dr. Sprunt was re-elected agent of Evangelistic 
Labor and chairman of the committee. 

The report showed that there had been eight Presby- 
terial evangelists in the field during the past year, and 
cheering reports came from all parts of the synod. There 



In North Carolina. 71 

was much cause for thankfulness, and in the Address to 
the Churches, written by the Rev. Jacob Henry Smith, 
D. D., it was said : '' We think that the present meeting 
of synod will be admitted to be one of the best and most 
encouraging ever held, and that it will mark an era in our 
North Carolina Church for progress and blessing in the 
matter of spreading the Gospel at home and abroad." 

It was indeed a great meeting, but we must remember, 
however, that at this time there were 96 counties in the 
State, and a population of more than a milion and a half, 
and in 2y of these counties there was no Presbyterian 
church, and in 19 of them only one church each, making 
46 counties and a vast population almost entirely without 
the influence of the Presbyterian Church. The number 
of Presbyterian communicants in the State at this time 
was something more than 26,000, and the contributions 
to Systematic Beneficence was nearly $56,000 — a gain 
of $13,000 over the last year. 

Soon after this meeting the committee met in Greens- 
boro, November 25, 1890, to determine the work of Dr. 
Smith as General Evangelist. It was decided that his 
especial work should be the raising of funds for placing 
more laborers in the field. 

The committee met again in Greensboro February 3, 
1891, and Dr. Smith reported a subscription of $2,000 
secured for the work. On the basis of this subscription 
it was agreed to elect one other general evangelist, and 
that further elections should be local or district evange- 
lists. The Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine was elected general 
evangelist, and the Rev. John C. McMullen was elected 
district evangelist, and subsequently the Rev. R. P. Pell 
was added to the force as district evangelist. 

At this meeting of the committee, also, the Rev. Dr. 
Morton gave notice that he would retire from the work 



^2 The Presbyterian Church 

some time during the year, and the Rev. John M. Rose, 
D. D., was elected general evangelist to take Dr. Morton's 
place when he retired. The committee met again in 
Fayetteville June 26, 1890, Dr. Smith having given notice 
of his resignation, owing to an affection of his throat. 
The committee declined to accept Dr. Smith's resignation, 
but granted him a vacation of six months with the earnest 
hope that his strength might be regained and that his 
almost marvellous success in the work of raising funds 
might be continued. 

In order that the w^ork might not suffer in the mean- 
time, the Rev. Alexander Sprunt, D. D,, was elected, for 
all his time, to take Dr. Smith's place,, to superintend 
the work and act as secretary, treasurer and evangelist. 
The Rev. Dr. Smith, however, resumed his special work 
before the meeting of the next synod, and his efforts were 
crowned with great success. 

Thus it vvill be seen that the committee had been very 
active and faithful, and had made many very important 
moves since the last meeting of synod. When the synod 
met at Durham in 1891 a full report was made; and, as 
already stated, an elaborate report on the " Work, Policy 
and Organization" of the great ''Movement" was sub- 
mitted to synod and adopted, and it remains essentially 
the same until this day, as well as being the plan and 
policy adopted by the General Assembly. 

The committee was authorized "for the ensuing year" 
to set apart a financial agent, w4iose w^hole time might be 
devoted to the work of laying the cause upon the hearts 
and consciences of the people, in order that local evange- 
lists might be multiplied. This office of financial agent 
was in its nature temporary, and was due to the desire to 
retain the service and utilize the gifts of both Dr. Smith 
and Dr. Sprunt. During the year this office was merged 



In North Carolina. 73 

into that of superintendent, which has remained perma- 
nent, and which was constituted at this meeting by the 
following article: 

"The offices of agent of Sustentation and agent of 
Evangelistic Labor shall be discontinued, and synod shall 
annually elect a superintendent of Synodical Missions, 
who shall be ex-officio chairman, secretary and treasurer 
of the Synodical Committee." 

The duties of this office were clearly set forth and 
defined in the report, and the Rev. Alexander Sprunt, 
D. D., was unanimously elected the first superintendent. 

The committee, as now constituted, was composed of 
the following persons: Rev. A. Sprunt, D. D., superin- 
tendent; Rev. E. W. Smith, D. D., financial agent; Rev. 
D. I. Craig, Rev. C. A. Munroe, Rev. H. G. Hill, D. D., 
Rev. P. H. Hoge, D. D., Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine, D. D., 
Rev. W. D. Morton, D. D., and Eiders J. M. Rogers, J. 
G. Hall, Dr. J. W. McNeill, B. F. Hall, John E. Gates 
and J. R. Young. 

In October of this year (1891) the Rev. Dr. Morton 
and his assistant, the Rev. C. W. Maxwell, retired from 
the work, and soon after the Rev. John C. McMulldn 
retired from the work. Mr. McMulUen was a pioneer 
evangelist in the eastern territory of the State for nearly 
a year. He was a faithful and untiring worker, and did 
a splendid work in a short time, in laying the foundations 
and preparing the way for others who were to follow him. 
Mr. Maxwell, for eight months, was the faithful assistant 
of Dr. Morton, and for some time after Dr. Morton re- 
tired from the field he continued in the Home Mission 
work. It was his custom to be on the ground, where a 
meeting was to be held, at least a week a'head of Dr. 
Morton, and by his daily services and faithful visiting 



74 The Presbyterian Church 

and general activity the people were prepared for a great 
meeting. Tlie results of the labors of such men as Messrs. 
McMullen and Maxwell and others who go before and 
prepare the Avay can never be tabulated, but they are very 
great and of a lasting character, and to such men the 
church should ever be grateful. 

The work of the Rev. W. D. Morton, D. D., as the 
first synodical evangelist in North Carolina, cannot be 
estimated. He came to the synod just at the right time, 
and seems to have been specially fitted for the work. His 
high standing as a minister of the Gospel, his dignity of 
manner and scholarly attainments, his zeal for the cause 
of the IMaster, his faithful and effective preaching, and 
his large experience in mission work gave to the work in 
North Carolina a standing and an impetus which were 
very necessary in the beginning, and upon which so much, 
depended in the future. Dr. ]\Iorton was called to North 
Carolina from the synod of Missouri, but previously he 
had been a synodical evangelist in the Synod of Kentucky, 
and was really one of the founders of the great synodical 
movement in that State. In a published account of the 
meeting of the Synod of Kentucky in 1881, it was said 
''the most important and intensely interesting business 
that came before the synodi was introduced by the Rev. 
W. D. Morton." He had collected facts and statistics, 
and elaborated a plan of evangelistic work for the synod, 
contemplating its prosecution on a larger scale than at 
any previous period. Its presentation was accompanied 
by a clear, forcible, powerful speech, which enthused the 
whole body. A sense of the importance of the work was 
realized by every one; but members were timid about 
undertaking it. Where was the money to come from? 
Two gentlemen of Louisville offered to contribute an 
amount equal to any that synod would raise, up to $5,000. 




r _ 




REV. W. D. MORTON. 



In North Carolina. 75 

The synod promptly accepted the offer, and $10,000 was 
secured. A plan of operation was agreed upon, an execu- 
tive committee was appointed, and the Rev. E. O. Guer- 
rant and Rev. W. D. Morton were unanimously chosen as 
synodical evangelists of the Synod of Kentucky." 

Dr. Morton faithfully and successfully occupied this 
position for three years, when he removed to Missouri. 
He entered upon his work in North Carolina October 7, 
1889, and retired from the work as evangelist October 11, 
1891. During that time he held 1,291 services, witnessed 
806 confessions, and saw 578 persons added to the Pres- 
byterian Church. He has never ceased to be an influen- 
tial factor in the great work of Synodical Missions, and 
"his bow still abides in strength," and he enjoys the love 
and esteem of the brethren and ministers to a devoted 
people at Rocky Mount, N. C. The synod is under last- 
ing obligations to him. 

During the year 1891 seven churches were organized, 
364 persons were added to the church, and the sum of 
$13,540 was raised in cash and subscriptions for the work. 
Of this amount $10,310 was raised by Dr. Smith within 
seven weeks, and $1,700 was raised by Dr. Sprunt, chair- 
man of the committee. 

In March, 1892, the Rev. W. E. Mclllwaine resigned 
as general evangelist, that he mig^ht accept the responsible 
position of superintendent of Synodical Home Missions 
in the Synod of Alabama. He served as general evange- 
list in North Carolina most faithfully and successfully 
for ten months, givmg most of his time to IMecklenburg 
Presbytery. 

In April, 1892, the Rev. Alexander Sprunt, D. D., re- 
signed the office of superintendent, that he might accept 
a pastorate in Charleston, S. C. Dr. Sprunt was promi- 
nently connected with synodical missions in North Caro- 



y6 The Presbyterian Church 

lina for a number of years, having been the agent of 
Evangehstic Labor, chairman of the committee, superin- 
tendent and evangelist. He was an efficient officer, and 
discharged all his duties with diligence and fidelity, and 
his labors were abundant and successful. 

Dr. Sprunt was the first superintendent of Synodical 
Missions, and during his administration a great deal was 
done toward rendering the w^ork permanent and self-sup- 
porting. The work was carried on largely by an execu- 
tive committee, appointed by the Synodical Committee, 
and this committee held many meetings and wisely con- 
ducted the work. It was composed of Rev. Dr. Sprunt 
(superintendent), Rev. Dr. Smith, Rev. Dr. Hill, Rev. 
Dr. Hoge and Mr. B. F. Hall. 

On Dr. Sprunt's retiring from the work, the Rev. E. 
W. Smith, D. D., was elected superintendent, and this 
office was now made to include the work of financial 
agent, and this latter office was ever afterwards discon- 
tinued'. 

Dr. Smith entered at once upon the combined duties of 
his office, and at this time the force in the field had been 
reduced to two men, giving their whole time to synodical 
work, the Rev. Dr. Rose, general evangelist, and Rev. 
R. P. Pell, district evangelist. But before the close of 
the year (1892) three local evangelists. Rev. C. Miller, 
Rev. W. C. Alexander, and Rev. M. McG. Shields, were 
added to the force, and Dr. Smith reported $9,806 raised 
by subscription for the work, and that the spirit of 
liberality and activity seemed to be widespread and in- 
creasing. 

At the close of the year 1893, the beginning of the great 
money panic, the committee said : '' The Divine blessing 
has been doubly and even trebly manifest ; in the extraor- 
dinary liberality with which individual churches have 



In North Carolina. 'J'] 

continued to respond to this cause, in tlie uniform success 
of the workers, and the special outpouring of God's Spirit 
upon some of our great mission country fields, where, 
until recently our church was unknown and in the cheer- 
ing fact that notwithstanding the bitter financial strin- 
gency of the times, your committee is able to report the 
$i,ooo debt with which the year began paid off in full, 
and all the workers paid up to date." This year 1,300 
confessions were reported, 513 additions to the church, 
and $18,033 raised in cash and subscriptions through this 
agency for the work. During the year several new men, 
as local evangelists, were placed in the field, among whom 
were the Rev. Messrs. C. W. Maxwell, F. W. Parries 
and William Black, and the reports from all the workers 
were of the most cheering character. The reports from 
Messrs. Pell in Mitchell and Watauga counties. Miller in 
Stokes county, and Black in Union and Anson counties, 
were almost thrilling. 

The fruits of earnest labors were now beginning to be 
gathered into an abundant harvest, but at this very time 
the work encountered most serious difficulties and hin- 
drances. 

On April 15, 1893, the Rev. J. M. Rose, D. D., laid 
down the work as general evangelist, after a faithful ser- 
vice of about eighteen months, and at the same time 
the Rev. Dr. Smith tendered his resignation as super- 
intendent. 

Dr. Rose was the immediate successor of Dr. Morton 
as general evangelist, but the character of his work was 
somewhat different. The greater part of his time was 
spent in destitute regions, where there were scarcely any 
Presbyterians, and where Presbyterian churches were 
few, feeble and far apart. His work was the more diffi- 
cult because it was almost entirely pioneer work, in ''the 



78 The Presbyterian Church 

highways and hedges," and often going under the special 
directions of the superintendent, to remain only three or 
four days at a place. He had no assistant to go before 
him and prepare the way for a meeting, but every thing 
depended upon himself. It was not until the latter part 
of his time in the service that he held a few meetings in 
the stronger churches, where his preaching was hailed 
w^ith joy. Dr. Rose, under the circumstances, did a won- 
derful work. He held 46 meetings and 619 services in 
22 counties in three or four Presbyteries, witnessed about 
200 confessions, and about 160 of \Vhom united with the 
Presbyterian Church; organized one church and .four 
Sunday-schools; baptized 43 adults and 21 infants, and 
collected in cash and subscriptions more than $1,000 for 
the work. By his clear-cut, logical, scriptural and able 
presentation of the truth, made so plain and simple that 
a child could understand, he was the very man in the 
weaker fields, and w^here the people knew but little of the 
Presbyterian Church, to "strengthen the things that re- 
mained," and in the new^er fields to establish the people 
''in the faith of the Gospel/' as well as to lead them to the 
Saviour. 

The synod declined to accept the resignation of Dr. 
Smith as superintendent, which was offered chiefly on 
account of a weak throat, but relieved him of all field 
work, and empowered the committee to elect a superin- 
tendent when the time and occasion seemed propitious. 

The synod said : " In connection with the retirement 
of Dr. E. W. Smith from active field work as superin- 
tendent, the synod desires to place upon record its great 
appreciation of the value of the movement with which 
Dr. Smith has been so prominently associated, and their 
appreciation of the labors of Mr. Smith, which have been 
so self-denying and so exceptionally blessed. We feel that 



In North Carolina. 79 

both in the past usefulness and future promise, there has 
rarely, if ever, been a movement of so much importance 
to the Synod of North Carolina, and a work so benefitted 
by the personal work of Rev. Mr. Smith, that only in 
obedience to his fixed convictions of duty could the synod 
as:ree to allow the work to be laid down. And, further, 
that we most tenderly pray for a blessing upon the health 
and continued usefulness of the loved brother mentioned 
in this minute." 

Dr. Smith continued in the work until February 15, 
1894, when he was succeeded by the Rev. William Black, 
who was elected superintendent by the committee January 
15, 1894. Dr. Smith, however, for several years after- 
wards, was retained on the General Committee, and con- 
tinued to aid the cause by his personal influence and wise 
counsel. 

It would be impossible to estimate the value of the 
labors of Dr. Smith in connection with Synodical Home 
Missions in North Carolina. It is true this can be said 
of other men with equal truth in the same connection, 
but Dr. Smith did the work not only of an evangelist to 
a considerable extent and with marked success, besides 
the duties attending the office of superintendent, but his 
great work lay in his marvellous ability and unprecedented 
success in raising funds for the support of the cause. 
The Lord seems to have especially guided the synod in 
laying hands upon him as the one specially fitted for the 
work — as the man for the time, and at a time when it was 
sorely needed. It was no uncommon thing for Dr. Smith 
to visit a church, habitually believing itself unable to sup- 
port a pastor for all of his time, and, by his gentle man- 
ners, persuasive speech and burning eloquence, raise at 
least one thousand from that church for the support of 
Synodical Home Missions ! 



8o The Presbyterian Church 

The object was to place, or help to place, evangelists in 
every county in the State, to get groups of churches in 
the way of self-support, and to have the Presbyteries to 
assume the support of the evangelists as soon as possible. 
To this end thousands of dollars were raised by Dr. Smith 
alone, not to speak of the considerable amounts raised 
by others, and the people were stimulated by his presen- 
tation of the cause to give liberally, and thus much land 
was possessed and many souls were saved. 

Dr. Smith was ordained as co-pastor of the Greensboro 
Church, with his honored and venerable father, Rev. 
Jacob Henry Smith, D. D., in October, 1886, and this 
relation continued until he became pastor of the West- 
minster Church in Greensboro, from which he was called 
to the work of the synod in 1890. Early in 1894 he re- 
turned to the co-pastorate with his father, which con- 
tinued until the death of his father, in November, 1897. 
He then had sole charge of the large First Chunch of 
Greensboro, giving to it his untiring and successful labors, 
until 1906, when he removed from the synod to Louisville, 
Ky. He did a noble w^ork for the Synod of North Caro- 
lina, a w^ork which attracted the attention of the whole 
Southern Church, and which placed North Carolina in 
the forefront as to Home Missions, and the synod will 
never cease to owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Egbert W. 
Smith. 

But, notwithstanding the retirement of Dr. Rose and 
Dr. Smith, and the stringency of the times owing to the 
money panic, the work went steadily forward. New 
fields were opened, new men were employed and the con- 
tributions increased with the demands of the work. A 
large number of evangelists were now employed by the 
Presbyteries for a part or all of their time, and aided 
in their support by the synod's funds. The synod had 



In North Carolina. 8i 

very few local or district evangelists whom it supported 
entirely, but the object was to help the Presbyteries in 
overtaking their destitutions by synodical means. The 
success of the whole scheme depended largely upon the 
labors of these evangelists, and they did, and are still 
doing, a grand work, the results of which cannot be 
tabulated or written in a book like this. 

About this time, however, profound attention was 
directed to the labors of at least three of these local evan- 
gelists — Messrs, Miller, Pell and Black. 

In Alay, 1892, the Rev. Cornelius Miller began his 
work as synod's local evangelist in Stokes county. At 
that time there was no Presbyterian church and no Pres- 
byterians with which to form a church in the county. In 
the long ago there were one or two feeble Presbyterian 
organizations in this county, one at Sandy Ridge and one 
at Snow Creek, but not a vestige of them now remained. 
The first point at which Mr. Miller began to preach was 
at a school house in the northwest part of the county, near 
the residence of Mr. Robert W. George, one of the 
wealthiest farmers and one of the most influential men 
of the county, and at that time Mr. George was not a 
professor of religion. In the summer of 1892, Mr. 
Miller began operations to build a church at this point, 
Mr. George subscribed liberally, and with some help from 
the neighborhood and from kind friends in Winston and 
elsewhere, the church was built, and on May 28, 1893, the 
building was dedicated to the worship of God by the 
Rev. D. I. Craig. A vast crowd was present, almost ex- 
clusively of the Primitive Baptist "persuasion,'' the only 
Presbyterians being present were the two preachers, 
Messrs. IMiller and Craig, and an old gentleman by the 
name of Hines, who was a wandering tailor stopping in 
the neighborhood. In the following summer two young 



82 The Presbyterian Church 

men, Messrs. W. K. Forsyth and E. E. Gillespie, semi- 
nary students, assisted Mr. Miller and organized a Sun- 
day-school, with Mr. Gillespie as superintendent. This 
was probably the first Sunday-school ever known or 
conducted in that community. Miss Mamie McMillan 
and Miss Eleanor Coble, who were teachers of the public 
schools of the neighborhood, greatly assisted in the Sun- 
day-school, and did missionary work. In July, 1893, the 
Rev. William Black assisted Mr. Miller in a meeting, with 
blessed results. Such a meeting had never been known 
in that community. The first convert was Mr. Robert W. 
George, and he was followed by many, in some cases 
whole families coming together. In the following Octo- 
ber Dan River Church was organized with 58 members. 

In the winter of 1892, Dr. Rose assisted Mr. Miller 
in a meeting at Danbury with blessed results. A church 
building was immediately begun, and in 1894 Mr. Black 
held a meeting there with Mr. Miller, and soon after- 
wards the Danbury Church building was completed, and 
the church was organized with 33 charter members. 

In the summer of 1894 Mr. Miller held a meeting in 
the woods, in the northwest corner of the county, assisted 
by Mr. L. A. Coulter and Rev. A. S. Caldwell. Twenty- 
nine persons were received into the Presbyterian Church, 
but there was no building. Mr. George, heretofore re- 
ferred to, proposed to the people on the ground that he 
would pay one-half the cost of a church building if they 
would raise the other half. The proposition was accepted, 
and soon afterwards the Asbury Church building was 
completed, and the church organized and dedicated. 

In another region, inhabited largely by blockade dis- 
tillers, Mr. Miller preached faithfully for a long time 
under great difficulties and bitter opposition ; but finally 
he organized a small church known as Snow Hill. He 



In North Carolina. 83 

was greatly assisted here by a noble young lady, Miss 
Annie Query, who taught school and boarded right in the 
midst of the blockaders. 

In 1896 Orange Presbytery licensed and ordained, as 
an extraordinary case, Mr. Robert W. George to labor as 
a native evangelist in Stokes county and the surrounding 
country. 

For some time Mr. George had been practically preach- 
ing, going from house to house and holding prayer 
meetings, and telling the people what the Lord had done 
for him. Very soon afterwards he built a church, which 
was afterwards organized and known as Pine Ridge, 
in the edge of Surry county, adjoining Stokes. He was 
instrumental in building and organizing Pine Hall 
Church, in Stokes county, and also Sandy Ridge Church, 
in the same county, paying half of the cost of both build- 
ings. Mr. George is a wonderful man — a wonderful 
monument of God's grace, possessed of a strong mind 
and body, a big heart and full of the Master's Spirit. He 
has done, and is still doing a great work in his native 
county. 

Mr. Miller left the field in 1897, and was recalled to it 
in 1899. I^ ^^'^^ mean time the churches were supplied 
by Rev. S. S. Oliver and Rev. Robert W. George. After 
Mr. Miller's return he strengthened the work he had 
planted, and sowed good seed abundantly. He preached 
in the highways and hedges, in school-houses, under 
brush arbors, in the woods and everywhere. His name 
and labors will never be forgotten in Stokes county. He 
left the synod in 1903, but returned again, and at present 
is a beloved minister of King's Mountain Presbytery, and 
resides at Dallas, N. C. 

A similar story, with perhaps more thrilling incidents 
and along somewhat different lines, might be told of the 



84 The Presbyterian Church 

wonderful labors of Rev. R. P. Pell, in ]\Iitchell and 
Watauga counties. The data is not in hand to give a 
detailed account of ]\lr. Pell's work, but it was far more 
than that of an evangelist. It lay along educational lines 
as well as preaching the Gospel, and was far-reaching in 
its results, and if the data were in hand, the story of the 
beginning of the great educational work at Banner Elk, 
in Watauga county and at Spruce Pine, Plum Tree and 
Elk Park, in Mitchell county, would have to be told. The 
story would require a whole chapter in itself, as one of 
the great results of Synodical Home Missions. 

Mr. Pell was ordained as an evangelist of Orange 
Presbytery September 2, 1887, and he was a most faith- 
ful and successful evangelist of Orange and Albemarle 
Presbyteries until June, 1891, when he entered Mitchell 
and Watauga counties as the district evangelist for the 
synod. At that time there was no Presbyterian church 
in Mitchell county, and only one small church in Watauga. 
The following is a condensed summary of Mr. Pell's 
work, given to the synod in 1894, viz. : "Churches in 
charge, 4; mission points, 5; communicants, 162; Sabbath 
schools, 4 ; pupils, 275 ; day schools, 3 ; pupils, 275, with 
7 teachers ; regular prayer meetings, 3 ; seven elders and 
four deacons ; buildings completed, 4, and i partly com- 
pleted (and for the past year), 40 acres of land secured, 
45 baptisms, 68 additions, and money collected for church 
and school purposes, $787." Last year Mr. Pell had re- 
f>orted that he had cultivated 10 points with considerable 
regularity, and had collected $1,543; and the year before 
he states the donation of 50 acres of land. He travelle 1 
hundreds and hundreds of miles in his buggy and on 
horseback over hills, mountains and dales, and held an 
unknown number of services in sowing the good seed, 
which are now bringing forth an abundant harvest. He 



In North Carolina. 85 

left the synod early in 1905, and at present is the honored 
president of Converse College, at Spartanburg, S. C. 

The Rev. William Black was licensed by Fayetteville 
Presbytery January 17, 1893, and on the same day he was 
transferred to Mecklenburg Presbytery, where he im- 
mediately began his work as evangelist in Union and 
Anson counties. He was ordained May 9, 1893, and the 
report of his year's work to the synod of 1893 was as 
follows: " Personally conducted 218 services and assisted 
in 96 ; professed conversions, 757 ; additions to the Pres- 
byterian Church, 102 ; churches built, 2 and i organized ; 
Sunday-schools organized, 2 ; elders, 4, and deacons, 2 
ordained ; baptisms, 79 adults and 2 infants." 

The splendid reports of others who were engaged in 
evangelistic work about this time, such men as Rev. M. 
McG. Shields, Rev. W. C. Alexander, Rev. F. W. Par- 
ries^ Rev. C. W. Robinson, and many others, might be 
cited to show the progress of the work. 

But enough ; the work went steadily forward in spite of 
all difficulties and hindrances. 

The year 1894 marks the beginning of the career of the 
Rev. William Black in full connection with Synodical 
Home Missions, which connection has continued uninter- 
ruptedly until the present time, a period of more than 
thirteen years. 

As has been stated, Mr. Black was elected superin- 
tendent to succeed the Rev. Dr. Smith January 15, 1894, 
and he entered upon the full duties of superintendent, in- 
cluding the work of general evangelist, on February 15. 
1894. It was at a time when the whole country was be- 
ginning to feel the depression in business on account of 
the money panic, but at the end of the year the reports 
showed marked progress along all lines. The sum of 
about $23,000 had been raised in the synod for evangelis- 



86 The Presbyterian Church 

tic work, and all the workers had been paid without 
incurring debt. There were now forty-six evangelists, 
synodical and Presbyterial, at work in the synod, for the 
whole or part of their time; and through these it was 
reported that there had been 1,198 additions to the church, 
and of this number 526 were reported by synodical 
evangelists. 

During the next two years the financial embarrassments 
of the country were felt more keenly, and the contribu- 
tions to the work suffered a slight decrease, while the 
demands of the work increased. Consequently there was 
a deficit ; but in spite of the deficit the work went steadily 
forward. The policy of the Presbyteries and of the 
churches had now become so fixed as to render the con- 
duct of the work somewhat easier and more certain and 
satisfactory. Yet it was felt that the combined work of 
superintendent and general evangelist was too heavy a 
burden to be borne by any one man, and ought to be 
separated. For example, the reports of 1895 and 1896 
showed that Mr. Black had held 45 meetings, had 
preached more than 700 times, had added 728 persons 
to the church, and had acted as secretary and treasurer, 
which involved the writing and mailing of hundreds and 
thousands of letters and circulars ; collecting and disburs- 
ing all the funds, looking after the work of the whole 
field, and raising money for its support. Consequently 
the synod of 1896 recognizing the need of more active 
prosecution of the financial side of the work, and not 
wishing to draw more of the superintendent's time from 
the evangelistic work, in which he had been so eminently 
blessed, the synod authorized the committee to secure 
the services of an assistant superintendent. But when 
the committee met it relieved Mr. Black, the general 
evangelist, of the entire responsibility of the conduct and 



In North Carolina. 87 

support of the work by electing the Rev. A. J. McKelway, 
D. D., superintendent, to take charge of this part of the 
work, and in order that Mr. Black might devote his entire 
time to the work of general evangelist. The next synod 
endorsed this action of the committee, and this plan has 
been continued until the present time, and the Rev. Wil- 
liam Black has been re-elected by the synod, usually by a 
rising vote, from year to year, as the one general evan- 
gelist of the Synod of North Carolina. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Continued Progress, and Some of the Results, 

OF Synodical Home Missions in North 

Carolina, and the Men of the Times. 

The Rev. A. J. McKehvay, D. D., was elected and 
entered upon his work as superintendent in January, 

1897. During a part of this year he gave only one-half 
of his time to the work, the other half being given to 
his pastorate in Fayetteville. He also, published for a 
time a paper called " The Synodical Evangelist," which 
was a source of much information and help to the cause. 
During the administration of Dr. jMcKelway, which was 
nearly two years, he attended the meetings of the Presby- 
teries, visited a great many churches, and by personal 
appeal secured, in cash and subscriptions several thous- 
and dollars for the support of the work. As many as five 
or six new counties were opened to Presbyterianism, and 
as many new men were placed in the field. Dr. McKel- 
way was a faithful and efficient superintendent, and under 
his administration the work was aggressive; but about 
this time he became manager and editor of the " North 
Carolina Presbyterian," and the ever increasing demands 
of the work required the whole time and energies of a 
man to present the cause to the churches, from year to 
year, and to keep the financial needs adequate to the 
demands. Consequently, at the meeting of the Synod of 

1898, Dr. McKelway resigned as superintendent, that he 
might give his whole time to editorial work, having be- 
come editor of the " North Carolina Presbyterian." 

The responsibility of the work of the superintendent 



In North Carolina. 89 

devolved again for a short time upon the Rev. WilUam 
Black, general evangelist. 

In order to show the progress of the work about this 
time, and especially the increasing demand for all of the 
time and energies of a superintendent, it is only neces- 
sary to revert to one of the results of Home Missions 
in the year 1896. It was the formation of Asheville Pres- 
bytery, set off from Alecklenburg, on November 12, 1896. 
This Presbytery is composed of 11 counties, 19 churches, 
10 ministers and 1,000 communicants. The territory lies 
west of the Blue Ridge, and embraces the counties of 
Buncombe, Clay, Cherokee, Graham, Haywood, Hender- 
son, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Transylvania and Swain. 
This Presbytery was almost entirely missionary ground 
and greatly increased the duties of the superintendent. In 
1896 there was no Presbyterian church in four of these 
counties, and there were not more than 150 communi- 
cants all told in about four of the other counties com- 
bined. At the present time every county has been entered, 
and there are 25 churches with more than 1,700 communi- 
cants, and nearly $22,000 in aggregate is raised in the 
Presbytery. There have been great transformations in 
that part of the country within the last ten or twelve years, 
and whatever of good has resulted in this region from 
Presbyterianism through evangelistic efforts, a large 
share of that good is due to the earnest missionary spirit 
and great liberality of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Asheville, under the able leadership of its beloved pastor, 
the Rev. R. F. Campbell, D. D. And in conjunction with 
this church, due credit should be given for the success 
achieved to the Rev. R. P. Smith and the Rev. E. Mac- 
Davis. 

The Rev. R. P. Smith became a member of the synod 
and pastor of the Gastonia Church in 1893, and from that 



90 The Presbyterian Church 

day until the present time he has been identified with 
evangeHstic work. After a most succe.ssful work as pastor 
of the Gastonia Church he became the general evangelist 
for Mecklenburg Presbyter}-, and he labored in some of 
these counties before the Asheville Presbytery was 
formed. After the formation of the Presbytery, he be- 
came its general evangelist until 1904, when the synod 
called him to the office of superintendent of Synodical 
Home ^Missions. For more than eight years }vlr. Smith 
was evangelist of this Presbytery, and during that time, 
as a brother minister has said, ''he was eyes, ears, hands 
and feet to the Presbytery's Home Mission Committee." 
He travelled through the valleys and over the mountains 
in all sorts of conveyances, on horseback and mule-back, 
with or without saddle, and often on foot. He preached 
to the people in churches, school houses and groves, by 
the wayside and from house to house. He planned most 
of the buildings erected, purchased the material, and 
superintended the work from start to finish. He organized 
churches and schools, fostered them with his personal 
care, and found preachers and teachers to take charge of 
them. Thus he was not only "all things to all men," but 
well-nigh ''^all men to all things." Mr. Smith is a man of 
lovable disposition and temperament, and has a great 
fondness for children, and he has never failed to find an 
oi>en door to the homes of the people, with whom he has 
labored and with whom he is exceedmgly popular. He is 
a faithful and earnest preacher, his manner showing that 
he believes what he preaches, and much of the success 
that has marked the mission work in Western North 
Carolina has been due to the wisdom, energy and conse- 
cration of Rev. Robert P. Smith. 

The Rev. E. Mac. Davis was the pioneer evangelist 
of Madison county, beginning his labors in the summer 




REV. R. p. SMITH. 



In North Carolina. 91 

of 1897 and continuing until 1904. In the brief reports 
to synod of his work we learn that he preached at about 
thirty-eight points, distributed thousands of tracts and 
books, and travelled thousands of miles. He organized 
three or four churches and a large number of Sunday- 
schools and mission summer day schools. He secured 
for teachers and as helpers in his Sunday-school work 
from time to time during his sojourn of about six years, 
andi usually without cost to the committee, the following 
persons, viz. : Misses Margaret Allison, Elizabeth Tucker, 
Elizabeth and Fanny McPhearson, Janie Vaughan, Bessie 
Black, Urbie Myrover, Kathrene Jarrell, Ethie Vickery, 
Lula Barnett, Miss Ferguson, Miss Rea, Anna McDon- 
ald, and Mr. T. G. Rogers. Misses Allison, Black and 
McDonald were with him, perhaps, longer than some of 
the others, but a great and grand work was done by all 
of these noble, self-sacrificing. women. Mr. Davis was a 
man of strong convictions of truth and righteousness, and 
was absolutely fearless. He had many conflicts with the 
illicit distillers and whiskey interests in this county, and 
at times his personal safety was threatened, but in 190 1 
he won a great victory in his field by his valiant labors, 
resulting in the passage of a prohibition law covering 
three counties. We cannot estimate the value of this 
faithful soldier's service for the Master in that section. 
The churches he has left behind him, with a membership 
of perhaps 200 are his memorial. He did a fine work, 
and the people will not soon forget his zeal and energy 
and noble efforts for the cause of God and humanity. 

After the resignation of Dr. A. J. McKelway as super- 
intendent, in October, 1898, the Rev. William Black, 
general evangelist, acted as superintendent the remainder 
of the year, and in January, 1899, the committee, In its 
wisdom, selected for the ofiice of superintendent the Rev. 



92 The Presbyterian Church 

E. E. Gillespie, a young man of splendid attainments, 
and an evangelist of Orange Presbytery, who entered 
upon his work as superintendent January i6, 1899. Mr. 
Gillespie continued in this position, filling the office of 
superintendent with great acceptance, ability and success, 
until the end of the year 1904, a period of six years, 
within which time great things were done for the ad- 
vancement of the Kingdom of Christ. 

It will be remembered that the first permanent Commit- 
tee on Synodical Home Missions was constituted at Char- 
lotte in 1889, and the first report of that committee was 
made at Wilmington in 1890. At that time the report 
showed that the synod was composed of six Presbyteries, 
including Albemarle, which had just been formed, 127 
ministers, 275 churches and 26,189 communicants. The 
report also showed that the following 2^ counties had no 
Presbyterian church within their borders, viz. : Alleghany, 
Ashe, Bertie, Brunswick, Camden, Cherokee, Chowan, 
Currituck, Dare, Gates, Graham, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, 
Jackson, ]Madison, Martin, Mitchell, Northampton, Pam- 
lico, Perquimans, Person, Pitt, Stokes, Tyrrell, Wash- 
ington and Yancey; and 19 other counties had but one 
Presbyterian church each, making 46 counties either 
wholly or almost destitute of Presbyterianism. The re- 
port, moreover, showed that the aggregate funds raised in 
the synod for all causes and reported to the Assembly 
amounted to $194,385.00, and that there were not more 
than twelve ministers engaged for a part or the whole of 
their time in evangelistic work. 

In 1900, after a lapse of ten years, the reports show that 
there were 7 Presbyteries, 160 ministers, 377 churches, 
34,634 communicants ; only 17 vacant counties, 23 Presby- 
terial evangelists. 14 ministers, not including the super- 
intendent and general evangelist, and a large number of 



In North Carolina. 93 

male and female teachers, doing evangelistic work, and 
that the aggregate amount of funds collected for all 
causes and reported to the Assembly was $220,946.00. 

Thus it will be seen by this comparison that at the end 
of ten years there was a decided advance along all lines 
in overtaking the destitutions. 

The names of the ministers employed under the direc- 
tion, of the Synodical Committee for a part or the whole 
of their time, and at some time during the past ten years 
are as follows : 

Superintendents — Rev. Alexander Sprunt, Rev. E. W. 
Smith, Rev. William Black, Rev. A. J. McKelway and 
Rev. E. E. Gillespie. 

General Evangelists — Rev. W. D. Morton, Rev. E. W. 
Smith, Rev. W. E. Mcllwaine, Rev. John ]M. Rose and 
Rev. William Black. 

District or Local Evangelists — Revs. Messrs. C. W. 
Maxwell, J. C. McMullen, R. P. Pell, F. H. Johnston, C. 
Miller, M. McG. Shields, W. C. Alexander, C. W. Robin- 
son, F. D. Farris, D. J. Currie, Jonas Barclay, B. Souher, 
John Wakefield, L. A. McLaurin, Edgar Tufts, L. E. 
Bostian, A. K. Pool, J. E. Balou, E. Mac. Davis, John 
Grey, P. C. Morton, James Thomas, F. D. Thomas, C. N. 
Wharton, E. D. Brown, W. T. Walker, W. M. Shaw, J. 
E. L. Winecoff, E. P. Bradley and Allen Jones, Jr. 

There were also a number of Presbyterial evangelists 
in no wise connected with the Synodical Committee, and 
all of these brethren labored faithfully and efficiently, and 
were the instruments in God's hands in disseminating the 
truth in preaching the pure Gospel, in building and or- 
ganizing churches, in the conversion of thousands of souls, 
and in strengthening the faith and comforting the hearts 
of tens of thousands of God's people. It is impossible 
to estimate or reduce to figures the good results of the 



94 The Presbyterian Church 

labors of these men during these ten years. God only 
knows. There were also a number of teachers, mostly 
ladies, of mission schools, whose names are not at hand, 
who did a noble work and rendered great assistance to 
the Home Mission cause. 

Of the above named ministers, at least four of them, 
the Rev. F. H. Johnston, D. D., the Rev. Paul C. Morton, 
the Rev. E. Mac. Davis, and the Rev. A. K. Pool, have 
gone to their blessed reward, and have joined scores and 
scores of those who heard them preach and sing the 
story of redeeming love while on earth. 

The Rev. Dr. Johnston and the Rev. Mr. Morton be- 
longed to that class of ministers who had labored faith- 
fully and long before the origin of synodical missions. 
Dr. Johnston was the son of a missionary, and was born 
in Constantinople August 8, 1834. He spent the first six.- 
teen years of his life in the far-off land of Asia Minor. 
He came to North Carolina, the native land of his fathers, 
in 1 85 1, and was educated at Davidson College. For 
thirty-three years he was a beloved and successful pastor, 
iirst at Lexington and afterwards at Winston, N. C. He 
was the honored stated clerk of old Orange Presbytery 
for twelve years, and was elected general evangelist be- 
fore the formation of Albemarle, and in 1890 he was 
residing within its bounds. He continued in the evan- 
gelistic work until his death, November 14, 1901. 

Dr. Johnston was the recipient of many honors, and the 
depository of many trusts from the church. He was a 
scholarly man, and his judgment was clear and con- 
clusive. He was one of the central figures in the great 
Synodical Movement, and gave to it his hearty support, 
and his successful evangelistic labors were wrought in 
Albemarle Presbytery. He was a profound and edifying 
preacher, gentle and retiring in his disposition and man- 




REN/. F. H- JOHNSTON, D. D. 



In North Carolina. 95 

ners, but brave and courageous in defense of the truth. 
He was as modest as a pure woman, and a most agreeable 
and pleasant companion with his old and tried friends 
and with those who knew him best — 

'' None knew him but to love him ; 
None named him but to praise." 

The Rev. Mr. Morton came to the Synod of North 
Carolina in 1895, and until his death, in 1902, he did gen- 
eral evangelistic work, especially within the bounds of 
Wilmington Presbytery. He was a brave soldier chaplain 
of the Civil War, and many incidents are related of his re- 
markable bravery and fearlessness. " He was a good 
man, full of the Holy Ghost and faith, and he lived in an 
atmosphere of prayer." After his death it was said of him 
by one who knew him well : " His character was golden, 
his life was simple, his zeal was abounding, his love deep, 
his faith unfaltering, his spiritual being high and lifted 
up, through the power of Divine grace." 

The Rev. E. Mac. Davis, after retiring from the Avork 
in Madison county, accepted work in the Synod of 
Georgia, and soon afterwards his health failed and the 
Lord called him to his reward. 

The Rev. A. K. Pool was a young man of sweet dispo- 
sition and lovely spirit, and for about three years of his 
life he was an ordained minister, an evangelist of Concord 
Presbytery, and the synod's assistant to the Rev. Mr. 
Black, the general evangelist. The churches of Forest 
Hill, McKinnon and Patterson Mills, in Concord Presby- 
tery, are largely the fruits of his labors. He had to give 
up the work of preaching the Gospel on account of failing 
health, and for more than a year before his death he was 
continuously with Mr. Black in his meetings, and devoted 
his whole time to singing the Gospel, which he did with 



96 The Presbyterian Church 

great power and unction. He was the assistant director 
of the music at the Biblical Institute held at Red Springs 
in 1892, and he had entire control of the music of the 
institute held there and at Gastonia in 1893. 

'* Mr. Pool had rare gifts as a singer, possessing, as he 
did, not only a thorough knowledge of music, but one of 
the sweetest voices ever heard in the State. He rendered 
much valuable aid to Mr. Black in the meetings which 
were held, and Mr. Black speaks of a number of instances 
in which he believes men were saved through his singing, 
upon whom the preaching seemed to have but little effect. 
Mr. Pool was engaged in one of these meetings when he 
was taken sick, and from which sickness he never rallied, 
but died as it were in the harness, August 7, 1899, 
in the thirty-fourth year of his age, among the peo- 
ple where he had been laboring last. The last piece 
he sang in one of these meetings was '' Saved by Grace," 
which he did not only with rare sweetness, but with great 
ejffect upon the audience. There are at the present time 
four Presbyterian churches within a radius of about four 
miles of the place of his death — Democrat, N. C. — and at 
that time there were none at all. Of course all of this is 
not due to him, but much of it is, as perhaps nowhere else 
did his singing make a greater impression than among 
those plain but appreciative mountaineers. In the synod's 
obituary of him it is said : " The sweet singer of the 
Synod of North Carolina is heard here no more, but he 
still sings the praises of redeeming love, with a harp in 
his hands and a crown on his head, where there is no 
more sickness and no more death." 

The Rev. E. E. Gillespie occupied the position of super- 
intendent from the beginning of the year 1899 to the end 
of the year 1904, a period of six years, and during that 
time the work of Synodical Missions went steadily and 




REV. A. K- POOL. 



In North Carolina. 97 

increasingly forward, and prospered to a very high 
degree. The superintendent, the general evangelist and 
the committee went hand in hand and shoulder to shoulder 
to the great work to which God had so manifestly called 
them. A great deal was accomplished for the Master's 
kingdom. 

In 1899 Mr. Gillespie found a debt of $4,843 resting 
upon the work. This debt was cancelled the first year, 
and there was a steady enlargement of the work each 
year during the time of his service. He received and 
collected in cash for the support of the work during his 
administration the sum of nearly $55,000. He visited 
most of the churches in the synod and held more than a 
thousand services. Many of these services were pro- 
tracted, wherein he witnessed the conversion of many 
precious souls, and saw a large number added to the 
church. 

Mr. Gillespie was specially fitted for the work, a man 
of commanding personal appearance, attractive in his 
manners, full of zeal and energy, and possessing great 
executive ability. God greatly blessed him in the work. 
During his administration, the following additional min- 
isters were employed by the committee and placed in the 
field for the whole or a part of their time: Rev. Messrs. 
D. Munroe, J. S. Smith, J. H. Jarvis, E. Garrow, W. A. 
Murray, J. A. Harris, L. E. Wells, J. C. Story, R. M. 
Mann, J. P. Hall, A. H. Temple, P. C. Irwin, I. N. Clegg, 
H. Garrow, H. H. Cassady, S. C. Smith, R. L. Grier, C. 
W. McDonald, F. G. Hartman, R. H. Orr, L. W. Curtis, 
F. E. Ghigo, J. C. Hardin, and W. T. D. Moss, besides a 
large number of male and female teachers. It was also 
during his administration, October 23, 1902, that the Pres- 
bytery of "King's Mountain'' was formed. 

This Presbytery, the second daughter of Mecklenburg, 



98 The Presbyterian Church 

was another result of Synodical Home Missions. The 
first meeting was held at Lincolnton, N. C, November 
18, 1902, and the Rev. R. A. Miller preached the opening 
sermon. 

On the retirement of Mr. Gillespie, at the close of the 
year 1904, and in order to take a special course of study 
and to eventually become a pastor, the synod adopted the 
following resolution : 

*' Resolved^ That the Synod of North Carolina would 
record its profound gratitude to our gracious God for the 
noble work that he has enabled our retiring superintend- 
ent, Rev. E. E. Gillespie, to do for our mission field during 
the past six years, and that it would express to Brother 
Gillespie its cordial appreciation of his zealous, faithfal 
and efficient labors for Home Missions, and that it would 
invoke upon him and his efforts the same Divine blessing 
in any field to which he may be called, that has manifestly 
rested upon his endeavors within our bounds." 

Mr. Gillespie, at present, is a member of the Synod of 
South Carolina, and the beloved pastor of the Yorkville 
Presbyterian Church. 

It has already been stated that the synod, at Durham, 
N. C, November 17, 1904, elected the Rev. R. P. Smith 
superintendent of Synodical Home Missions as the worthy 
successor of Rev. Mr. Gillespie, and the time that has 
elapsed since has proven that the synod made no mistake 
in that election. Mr. Smith came to the Synod of North 
Carolina in 1893, as stated elsewhere in these pages, and 
from that date to the present time has proven himself to 
be a faithful pastor, an earnest and successful evangelist, 
and a wise and efficient superintendent. 

Mr. Smith is a man of fine attainments, possessing a 
winning disposition and cordial manners, a big heart full 
of love to God and man, and manifesting a zeal, energy 



In North Carolina. 99 

and devotion which are untiring for the cause of the 
Master. The conduct of the synod's great mission work 
is safe in his hands. 

His report as superintendent of the synod's work for 
the year 1905 shows that 25 ministers had been preach- 
ing the Word in destitute places ; that 22 volunteer teach- 
ers had been teaching more than 1,000 children, and that 
507 communicants had been added to the church. His 
report for the year 1906 shows that 27 ministers had 
served 71 small churches and 70 mission points; that 5 
churches and 30 Sabbath-schools had been organized in 
new territory; that 708 persons had been added to the 
church, and that the sum of $9,558 had been raised for 
the work. His report for the year 1907 has not yet been 
made, but we may justly believe that it is even more 
encouraging, showing the onward march of the great 
work of Synodical Home Missions in North Carolin.i. 

In all this onward march and progress of missions 
through the past seventeen or eighteen years there has 
been one agency contributing largely to the success of the 
movement, which ought not to be overlooked or lightly 
estimated, and that agency has been the wisdom, faithful- 
ness, self-denial and the sound judgment of the men who 
have composed the synod's Home Mission Committee, not 
including the officers of that committee. 

According to the plan which was practically adopted in 
1881, and which was perfected in 1889, the chairman of 
the Home Mission Committee of each Presbytery, during 
his tenure of office, and one ruling elder from each Pres- 
bytery, elected annually by the synod, should constitute 
this committee. The original committee, thus constituted 
at Charlotte, N. C, in 1889, was composed of the follow- 
ing persons : Rev. D. I. Craig, Rev. C. A. Munroe, Rev. 
H. G. Kill, D. D., Rev. P. H. Hoge, D. D., Rev. W. E. 



TOO The Presbyterian Church 

Mcllhvainc, D. D., and Rev. W. D. Morton upon the 
organization of Albemarle Presbytery ; and Ruling Elders 
Gen. A. M. Scales, I. H. Foust, Dr. J. W. McNeill, B. F. 
Hall, General Rufus Barringer and Samuel Watkins. 

The changes in this committee since that time have 
been as follows: The Rev. Mr. Craig was succeeded by 
the Rev. M. McG. Shields in 1894; Mr. Shields was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. R. W. Culbertson in 1898; Mr. Culbert- 
son was succeeded by Rev. E. C. I^Iurray, D. D., in 1901 ; 
Dr. Murray was succeeded by Rev. D. C. Lilly in 1904; 
Dr. Lilly was succeeded by Rev. C. F. Rankin in 1905, 
and Mr. Rankin was succeeded by Rev. S. M. Rankin in 
1906. 

The Rev. C. A. Munroe has never ceased to be a 
member of the committee until the present time, except 
for one year, 1902, when he was succeeded by Rev. W. I. 
Matthews, 1889. 

The Rev. H. G. Hill, D. D., has never ceased to be a 
member of the committee — 1889- 1907. 

The Rev. Dr. Hoge w^as succeeded by the Rev. A. D. 
McClure, D. D., in 1899. 

The Rev. Dr. Mclllwaine w^as succeeded by Rev. T. A. 
Wharton, D. D., in 1892; Dr. Wharton was succeeded by 
Rev. R. A. Miller in 1894; Mr. Miller was succeeded by 
Rev. J. R. Howerton, D. D., in 1899; Dr. Howerton was 
succeeded by Rev. G. T. Thompson in 1900; Mr. Thomp- 
son w^as succeeded by Rev. T. J. Allison in 1903 ; Mr. 
Allison was succeeded by Rev. P. H. Gwynn in 1904, and 
Mr. Gwynn was succeeded by Rev. George H. Atkinson 
in 1906. 

Dr. W. D. Morton was succeeded by Rev. J. B. Morton 
in 1897, and Mr. Morton was succeeded by Rev. W. D. 
Morton, D. D., in 1900. 

The Rev. R. F. Campbell, D. D., became a member on 



In North Carolina. ioi 

the organization of Asheville Presbytery in 1896, and has 
never ceased to be a member of the committee — 1896. 

The Rev. W. R. Minter became a member of the com- 
mittee in 1902, on the organization of King's Alountain 
Presbytery, and has continued a member until the present 
time — 1907. 

The changes among the ruHng elders have been as fol- 
lows : 

General A. M. Scales was succeeded by Islv. ]. M. 
Rogers in 1891. 

Mr. I. H. Foust was succeeded by Air. J. G. Hall in 
1890. 

Dr. J. W. [McNeill has never ceased to be a member of 
the committee — 1889. 

Mr. B. F. Hall has never ceased to be a member of the 
committee — 1889. 

General Barringer was succeeded by Mr. John E. Gates 
in 1890; Mr. Gates was succeeded by Mr. D. W. Gates 
in 1892; Mr. Gates was succeeded by Mr. C. E. Graham 
in 1894; Mr. Graham was succeeded by Mr. A. G. Breni- 
zer in 1896, and Mr. Brenizer was succeeded by Mr. H. 
M. Belk in 1905. 

Mr. Watkins was succeeded by J\lr. J. R. Young in 
1891, and Mr. Young was succeeded by Mr. C. M. Brown 
in 1906. 

Mr. Blair, who became a member in 1896, was suc- 
ceeded by Major Robert Bingham in 1901, and Major 
Bingham was succeeded by Mr. E. E. Quinlan in 1905. 

Dr. C. E. Adams became a member in 1903, and was 
succeeded by Mr. A. M. Smyre in 1905. 

Thus it may be seen that the present committee is com- 
posed of the following members: Rev. S. M. Rankin, 
Rev. C. A. Munroe, Rev. H. G. Hill, D. D., Rev. A. D. 
McClure, D. D., Rev. G. H. Atkinson, Rev. A. D. Mor- 



102 The Presbyterian Church 

ton, D. D., Rev. R. F. Campbell, D. D., Rev. W. R. 
Minter, and Messrs. J. iM. Rogers, J. G. Hall, Dr. J. W. 
McNeill, B. F. Hall, H. M. Belk, C. M. Brown, E. E. 
Quinlan and A. M. Smyre. 

It is worthy of note that of these persons the Rev. Dr. 
Hill, Rev. C.A. :\lunroe, Dr. J. W. McNeill and Mr. B. 

F. Hall were members of the original committee, and 
that all of them except Mr. Munroe, for one year, have 
served continuously on the committee until the present 
time; and also Messrs. J. G. Hall and J. M. Rogers have 
served for nearly the whole time of the committee's exist- 
ence. 

The synod owes a debt of gratitude to all the members 
of this committee for their faithful and efficient service, 
but the story of Synodical Missions as told in this book 
would not be complete without something more than the 
mere mention of the names of those who have served so 
long, especially of that great and good man, the Rev. H. 

G. Hill, D. D. 

Perhaps no man has ever served the church in North 
Carolina who has been more abundant in labors or who 
has been the recipient of more important trusts from the 
church than Dr. Hill. He began his ministerial career 
during the Civil War as a chaplain in the army. Before 
he completed his course of study in the Union Theological 
Seminary in Virginia he was licensed to preach by Orange 
Presbytery, when he entered the army as chaplain of the 
Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment, commanded by Col- 
onel A. M. Scales. In 1862 he was with the army around 
Richmond and in the famous Maryland campaign. In 
1863 he returned to the Seminary for a time, and in the 
winter oi that year he was sent again to the Army of 
Northern A'irginia as a missionary by Orange Presbytery. 
In the meantime, at intervals, he served the churches of 




REV. H- G. HiLL, D. D. 



In North Carolina. 103 

Hillsboro and Griers, in Caswell county, and taught in 
the school of the Misses Nash and Kollock in Hillsboro. 
On his return from the army in 1865 he became pastor 
of the Hillsboro Church. In 1867 he removed to Oxford, 
where he became pastor of the church and principal of 
the Seminary there, and the supply of Grassy Creek 
Church, and while here he started the erection of a 
church at Henderson. In 1868 he removed to Fayette- 
ville, N. C, where he was pastor, and doing extensive 
pastoral and presbyterial work in the whole surrounding 
country for eighteen years. In 1886 he removed to Max- 
ton, and became pastor of the Maxton and Centre 
churches, which position he still holds, and in which he 
has been wonderfully blessed. 

Dr. Hill has given to the church a wonderful example 
of the possibilities and powers of a missionary pastor. He 
has always been keenly alive to the missionary and educa- 
tional interests of the church around him, as well as at 
large, and his wisdom and influence along these lines 
have been very great in the S}Tiod of North Carolina. 
From the very inception of the Synodical '' Movement " 
in North Carolina, Dr. Hill has been a conspicuous figure, 
an ardent advocate, a wise counsellor, a powerful debater, 
an eloquent speaker, and a faithful laborer for the great 
cause; and to him, perhaps as much, if not more than to 
any living man, is due the honor and the praise of the 
origin and success of Synodical ^lissions in North Caro- 
lina. Dr. Hill has been honored by the church, and by 
strict attention to her calls and the faithful performance 
of the duties imposed, he has proven himself to be worthy 
of the honor. He has been made Moderator of her Pres- 
byteries, of the Synod of North Carolina, and of her 
highest court, the General Assembly ; he has made many 
public addresses by the appointment of the church, and 



I04 The Presbyterian Church 

has served on many of her important committees, and at 
the present time he is a director of Union Theological 
Seminary in \"irginia and the president of the Board of 
Regents of the Synod's Orphan's Home. He has been 
chairman of the Home Mission Committee of Fayetteville 
Presbytery for thirty-five years, and a member of the 
Synodical Home Mission Committee since the inception 
of the work. He is a recognized able preacher of the 
Gospel of wide reputation, and enjoys the love and esteem 
of a devoted people in his pastorate, and is a "brother 
beloved" by all the members of the Synod of North Caro- 
lina. 

The Rev. C. A. Munroe was licensed to preach by 
Fayetteville Presbytery in 1876, but was ordained in 
Mississippi, where he labored for six years. He returned 
to North Carolina and served as evangelist of Concord 
Presbytery for two years. He removed to West Virginia, 
where he labored for four years, and then returned to 
North Carolina and became pastor of the Hickory and 
Lenoir churches in 1888. In 1891 he became the chair- 
man of the Home Missions Committee of Concord Pres- 
bytery, in connection with the Lenoir Church, and at the 
present time he is the general evangelist of the Presbytery 
and chairman of the Home Mission Committee. Since 
1 89 1 he has been one of the most active, aggressive, use- 
ful and successful Home Mission men in the synod, and 
no man has been more faithful in his work or in co-opera- 
tion with the work of the synod's committee. The good 
results of Mr. Munroe's labors have been abundant, espe- 
cially in Concord Presbytery. 

Dr. J. W. McNeill, the '' beloved physician," of Cum- 
berland county, and Air. B. F. Hall, the " beloved elder" 
and wholesale commission merchant of Wilmington, N. 
C, members of the original committee, and Mr. J. G. Hall, 




REV. C. A- MUNROE 




MR. B. p. Hall. 



In North Carolina. 105 

manager of the Realty and Insurance Company at Lenoir, 
N. C, and Mr. J. M. Rogers, wholesale hardware mer- 
chant at Winston, N. C, have all seen the rise and pro- 
gress of Synodical ■ Missions from the beginning, and 
through their wise counsel and faithful efforts as mem- 
bers of the committee, the work has been greatly strength- 
ened and advanced. These men and many other members 
of the committee, both the church and the State have de- 
lighted to honor. 

Dr. McNeill was appointed by the General Assembly 
of 1895 on the Committee to represent the Southern Pres- 
byterian Church in the Pan-Presbyterian Council, which 
met in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1886, and he has served as 
a senator from his county in the State Legislature, ren- 
dering most valuable service as a member of that body. 

Mr. B. F. Hall has been in close touch with the interests 
of Presbyterianism for many years, and by his wise coun- 
sel, godly example, and generous gifts he has been a tower 
of strength to the church, especially in Eastern North 
Carolina. He was elected by the Synod of North Caro- 
lina a director of LTnion Theological Seminary in Virginia 
in 1884. and he still holds that honorable position. 

Mr. J. G. Hall is a well-known business-man and influ- 
ential elder in the western part of the State. He takes a 
deep interest in public affairs, and as a public speaker 
and a leader of men he exerts a wide influence for the 
upbuilding and welfare of both the church and the State. 

Mr. J. M. Rogers is a son of a minister, and knows the 
needs of a minister, and he, together with other members 
of the Winston church, has done a great deal for the 
pioneer ministers of Stokes county, and for the synodical 
work in that county and surrounding country. Mr. 
Rogers has been a faithful and punctual attendant upon 
the meetings of the committees, and his advice and coun- 
sel are always valuable. 



io6 The PRESJiVTEKiAN Church 

The limits of this book will not permit us to speak at 
length of the noble labors of other members of this com- 
mittee, some of whom have pa.^sed away, such men as 
General Scales, General Barringer, the Oates ; Messrs. 
Graham and Young, Major Bingham, the Rev. Mr. 
Shields, Rev. Dr. Alurray, the Rankins and the grand 
work and godly life and influence of the Rev. Dr. 
McClure. In the Rev. A. D. ^^IcClure, D. D., the synod 
has found a most worthy successor to Dr. Hoge, as chair- 
man of Home Missions for Wilmington Presbytery and 
ex officio a member of the Synodical Committee. He 
has not only kept going the large missionary enterprises 
which had been set on foot in his Presbytery prior to 
his election, but has reached out into other fields and made 
a most useful member of the synod's committee. Under 
his wise direction the synod has been enabled to assist 
in doing a great 'work in Brunswick, Columbus and 
Duplin counties, a most important work for every reason, 
and especially now that this section of the State is making 
such rapid progress in the wonderful success of its truck- 
ing interests, and many persons are moving into the coun- 
try, who could be and were reached by our church, and 
many of them have been added to its membership. 

We might speak, also, if it were possible, of a great 
number of noble men who were never members of the 
committee, but who have been prominent promoters and 
helpers of the great cause of Home Missions — such men 
as B. G. Worth, George Allen, S. P. Alexander, J. M. 
Mclver, George W. Watts, P. B. Fetzer, J. F. Love, J. D. 
Murphy and many others. But in closing this history of 
the development of the church and especially of the rise 
and progress of Synodical Missions in North Carolina it 
seems but right and proper to speak somewhat at length 
and in particular of the life and labors of the Rev. Wil- 



In North Carolina. 107 

Ham Black, general evangelist, who is also a member of 
the Synodical Committee. 

The Rev. Mr. Black has been prominently connected 
with Synodical Missions since January, 1893, and for the 
greater part of the time since then he has been the cen- 
tral figure in the evangelistic field, to which all eyes have 
been turned, and he is perhaps more widely known to-day 
than any other Presbyterian minister in North Carolina. 
It would be impossible for any biographer or historian 
to place upon record that which would convey an 
adequate conception of the vast and far-reaching influence 
for God and for the uplifting of humanity which this one 
man has exerted. If the Synodical Movement launched 
at Goldsboro in 1888 had accomplished nothing more 
than to put Mr. Black in the field, it would have proved 
a great success, and a w^ise investment for all the cost of 
missions until the present time. It would be hard for 
any one who has a proper conception of the facts to be- 
lieve that God did not specially raise up and set apart this 
brother to accomplish the special work which he has been 
enabled to do. 

Mr. Black was born of Scotch parents near Maxton, N. 
C, and was educated with the view of making the study 
and practice of law his life work. He studied law under 
** Dick and Dillard," of Greensboro, N. C, and was duly 
licensed and began the practice of law in 1881. He 
rapidly arose in the profession, and at the end of ten or 
twelve years he became what the world calls a successful 
lawyer, doing a paying business and enjoyinsf a large 
and lucrative practice. But God intended him to teach 
men the Divine law, and in 1893 he yielded himself to the 
unceasing demands of his Lord and of his conscience, and 
on Jan. i, 1893, he was licensed to preach the Gospel by 
Fayetteville Presbytery, and during the same year he was 



io8 The Presbyterian Church 

ordained by Mecklenburg Presbytery and immediately 
employed by the Presbytery and the Synod ical Commit- 
tee as a local evangelist for Union and Anson counties. 
He remained in this field just one year, and the Lord 
crowned his labors with wonderful success, giving him 
the joy of witnessing more than 700 conversions, and of 
seeing more than 100 communicants added to the Presby- 
terian church. 

On January 16, 1894, he was elected superintendent of 
Synodical Home ]\lissions, which at that time included 
the office and the work of general evangelist, and in Jan- 
uary, 1897, he began to give his whole time to evangelistic 
work, and except for a short interval in 1898, when he 
was again superintendent, he has continued until the 
present moment to give his whole time to the work of 
general evangelist for the synod. And in the mean time 
he has conducted several successful meetings in other 
States, with blessed results ; and, moreover, Mr. Black 
was the originator of the idea of Biblical institutes, so 
many of which have been held in this State, he having 
offered the resolution that provided for the first one, held 
at Red Springs, N. C, over which he presided, and a simi- 
lar one held at Gastonia in 1893. He was also assisted by 
the splendid serviced of the Rev. E. E. Gillespie, also re- 
sponsible for the origin, conduct and magnificent success 
of the Evangelistic and Biblical Institute held at Davidson 
College in 1902. These institutes, besides helping the 
thousands who attended' them to a better understanding of 
the Bible on every phase of Christian work, especially 
emphasized the missionary and evangelistic opportunities 
and responsibilities. 

During Mr. Black's connection with Synodical Home 
Missions in North Carolina, a period of fourteen years, 
the tabulated] reports of his labors as given from year to 




REV. E. E. GILLESPIE. 



In North Carolina. 109 

year will give some idea of the magnitude of these labors. 
The following figures may not be accurate, but at the 
present time (1907), they are in no wise exaggerated: 
He has held more than 4,000 services, and on an average 
in about twenty counties a year. He has witnessed the 
confession of several thousand persons, and more than 
4,000 of these have joined the Presbyterian Church, while 
many of the others have joined churches of other denomi- 
nations. He has organized a dozen or more Presbjterian 
churches, and as many Sunday-schools, and he has 
ordained quite a number of elders and deacons, besides 
baptizing adults and infants, and receiving from hun- 
dreds of heads of families the pledge or promise to hold 
family worship. He has travelled thousands of miles, has 
made many addresses, held many prayer meetings, and 
has done a vast amount of office work ; and wherever he 
has gone he has been hailed with delight and welcomed 
with joy. 

The great success of Mr. Black has been due in a large 
measure to his kind and gentle manners, his simple and 
candid cordiality, and his intense earnestness in present- 
ing the truth. His style of preaching reminds one that 
he has never lost many of the characteristics of the skilled 
lawyer presenting his case before a jury. His message is 
pointed, direct and earnest, speaking rapidly and yet ten- 
derly, producing in the minds and hearts of his hearers 
the feeling that his message is one of love combined with 
authority. Moreover, Mr. Black knows men, and how to 
adapt himself to the peculiarities and needs of men, 
having had abundant opportunity in the practice of law 
as well as in preaching the Gospel to study all classes and 
shades of humanity. He is a most congenial companion 
and a ''brother beloved" with his close friends, and with 
all who know him well, and upon him the entire Synod of 
North Carolina invoked its loving benediction. 



no The Presbyterian Church 

'* His bow still abides in strength, and the arms of his 
hands are made strong by the hands of the mighty God of 
Jacob/' who has honored him and blessed him and given 
him many stars for his crown. 

The great work which the Rev. William Black has 
done, he feels, is in a large measure due to the assistance 
of his singers, not only to Rev. A. K. Pool, who sang so 
sweetly till his death in 1899, but to Mr. Andrew Burr, 
his present helper, and many have no doubt been sung 
into the kingdom by these sweet singers, who might not 
otherwise have been reached. 

Mr. Burr is a native of Chatham, New Brunswick, 
Canada, and was elected a ruling elder in the St. Andrews 
Church in his city. He has been with Mr. Black, manag- 
ing the singing, since January, 1904, and is not only a 
sweet singer, but knows how to make the song service a 
power for good, not only in arousing Christians, but in 
reaching the unsaved also. From such services of song, 
as rendered by such men, it is clearly seen that it is a 
great power that many do not use, but they also show 
us how to use this force, after their visits to our churches 
are over. 




MR. ANDREW BURR. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

A Brief Summary of Some of the Results of Synodi- 
CAL Home Missions in North Carolina. 

Many of the great enterprises and advanced move- 
ments in tlie church of the present day may not be at- 
tributed as direct results to the great Synodical Move- 
ment^ but at the same time the vigorous prosecution of 
Synodical Missions opened the way, increased the interest 
and gave an impetus to all the great causes of the church, 
and made some of these enterprises possible. All of the 
great causes of the church, in a very great degree, have 
kept pace in the onward march with Home Missions. 
This is especially true along educational lines. Wherever 
a pioneer evangelist was sent a mission day school in 
connection w^th the work was established, and from some 
of these day schools splendid institutions of learning have 
had their origin. 

The Rev. J. B. Shearer, D. D., the great apostle of 
Church and Christian Education in North Carolina, began 
with the Synodical Movement in 1889 to urge the neces- 
sity of Biblical training in all Presbyterian schools, so as 
to make an intelligent scriptural faith the controlling prin- 
ciple of our schools. In 1890 a Synodical Committee on 
Church and Christian Education was appointed, and frorfi 
that day until the present time Dr. Shearer has faithfully 
and efficiently preached and toiled for the great cause, and 
his labors have not been in vain. The policy, plan and 
constitution of church schools as promulgated and ex- 
p>ounded by Dr. Shearer gradually found favor through- 



112 The Presbyterian Church 

out the church, and under the guidance of his wisdom was 
finally adopted by the General Assembly as the policy and 
plan of the whole Southern Presbyterian Church. This 
great cause has now assumed vast proportions, and its in- 
fluence for building up Christ's Kingdom is simply enor- 
mous. 

In connection with Church and Christian Education, 
and we may say as a result of the Home Mission Move- 
ment, a strong effort was inaugurated in 1900 to raise 
within five years the magnificent sum of $300,000 as a 
twentieth century fund for the cause of Christian educa- 
tion. The synod entered heartily into the movement, and 
appointed as a supervisory committee the Rev. R. E. 
Caldwell, Rev. A. R. Shaw and Mr. J. M. Mclver, to act 
conjointly with the Rev. J. W. Stagg, D. D., and Mr. 
George W. Watts, the Assembly's committee. 

In 1901 the synod called the Rev. Dr. Stagg as field 
secretary, to raise the money, and appointed a special 
committee, consisting of Rev. E. W. Smith, D. D., Rev. 
J. M. Rose, D. D., Rev. J. M. Wells, D. D., and Ruling 
Elders George W. Watts and J. M. Rogers, to act in 
conjunction with the Supervisory Committee and conduct 
the work. In 1902 the synod appointed an executive com- 
mittee, to take the place of the Supervisory Committee 
and to act in connection with the Presbyterial committees, 
consisting of Rev. E. W. Smith, D. D., Rev. E. C. Mur- 
ray, D. D., Rev. E. R. Leyburn, and Elders E. P. Whar- 
ton and J. M. Mclver. This committee had charge of the 
conduct of the work until its close, and the report in 1906 
showed that the sum of $113,789 had been raised for the 
cause of education. 

In 1889, immediately after the inauguration of Synod- 
ical Home Missions, the synod's Orphan's Home was 
established. The founding of this institution was one of 



In North Carolina. 113 

th€ most important steps ever taken by the Synod of 
North Carohna. It resuUed in a glorious success, to the 
honor of God and to the lasting good of the church and 
to humanity. The Rev. Jethro Rumple, D. D., was chair- 
man of the commission, appointed in 1888, to formulate 
plans for the establishment and conduct of the Home, and 
the plans submitted by him were adopted, and a Board of 
Regents were appointed to have the management of the 
Home. 

The original Board of Regents consisted of the follow- 
ing persons: Rev. J. Rumple, D. D. (president), Rev. W. 
E. Mclllwaine, Rev. D. I. Craig, Rev. D. D. McBryde, 
Hon. A. M. Scales, Hon. D. G. Fowle, George E. Wilson, 
Esq., George Chadbourn, Esq., Mr. John E. Oates and 
Mr. G. M. Love. 

A detailed account or minute history of the inaugura- 
tion of this Home, first at Charlotte and afterwards at 
Barium Springs ; of the many perplexing problems and 
difficulties solved and overcome by Dr. Rumple, the 
Board and the superintendent. Rev. R. W. Boyd, of the 
marvellous providences of God, and the wonderful success 
of the institution, and last, but not least, of the laborious 
work, the patient thought and tender care of Dr. Rumple 
in his long connection with the Home, would read like 
a thrilling romance if it were written. For fifteen years 
the management of this institution was the burden of the 
great heart of Dr. Rumple, and to this work he gave his 
best thought, his wise counsel and noble eiforts, and its 
success was the joy of the closing years of his life. The 
Home has never had but one superintendent, the Rev. R. 
W. Boyd, who is honored and beloved by the synod and 
the 150 orphan children under his care. Through the 
long years of his service he has proven himself to be the 
right man in the right place. The Home as it now stands 



114 The Presbyterian Church 

is comprised of nine main buildings on 250 acres of land, 
and the whole property is worth more than $50,000. 

Among the liberal donors to the Home and after whom 
some of the buildings are named, the names of George W. 
Watts, Mrs. S. P. Lees, Mr. S. P. Alexander, Mr. J. C. 
Burroughs, Judge Howard, Mr. Phillips, Mr. Carson 
and others will never cease to be gratefully remembered. 

Schools Under Church Control. 

At the head of the list stands Davidson College, which 
has always been owned and controlled by Presbyteries 
and synods, and which can by no means be classed as a 
result of the Synodical Home Mission Movement, and yet 
it has been greatly strengthened, helped and encouraged 
by the movement; and the same may be said of Peace 
Institute, at Raleigh, which is owned by Presbyterians, 
if it is not under the direct control of the church. 

The Charlotte and Statesville Female Colleges and the 
Southern Presbyterian College and Conservatory of 
Music at Red Springs, N. C. ; all three of them, as dis- 
tinctive church schools, were founded in 1896, and are 
owned and controlled by the Presbyteries in whose 
bounds they are located. These three female colleges can 
scarcely be surpassed in their equipment for furnishing 
a thorough education on such terms that it may be in 
reach of all. Any attempt here to write the history of 
each of these schools or to advertise their merits would 
be inadequate. 

The history, however, of the origin of the College at 
Red Springs was in connection with an effort on the part 
of Fayetteville Presbytery to reopen the old Floral Col- 
lege as a high school for girls. Only a portion of the 
necessary amount of money could be raised, and in the 
spring of 1895 the Presbytery invited other points or 




REV. S. M. RANKIN. 



In North Carolina. 115 

places in the Presbytery to submit bids for the location 
of the school. 

On August 15, 1895, the Rev. S. M. Rankin, who at 
that time was pastor of the Red Springs Church, called a 
mass meeting of the citizens of the place to consider the 
matter, and about fifteen men assembled, and one man 
offered to give $100 as a beginning, and Mr. Rankin was 
instructed to prosecute a canvass for the location of the 
school at Red Springs. 

At the next meeting of Presbytery, September 17, 1895, 
the bid from Red Springs, amounting to four acres of 
land, twenty-five hundred dollars in cash or material and 
one-sixth interest in certain fair ground property, was 
accepted by the Presbytery, and the Committee on Church 
and Christian Education was authorized to select the site 
and to canvass the churches for additional funds. 

In October, 1895, the site offered by Dr. J. L. McMillan 
was selected as the location, and the Rev. Mr. Rankin was 
appointed to canvass the churches of Presbytery. 

In March, 1896, Mr. Rankin reported $5,000 raised, 
and also submitted plans and specifications for the first 
building, which were accepted, and Mr. Rankin was 
elected chairman and treasurer of the Building Commit- 
tee. A Board of Trustees was appointed, and in June, 
1896, the Rev. C. G. Vardell was elected to take charge 
of the school. The school opened September 30, 1896, 
with an enrollment, during the year, of 112. Under the 
splendid management of Dr. Vardell the institution has 
steadily advanced to the forefront of female colleges 
in the South, and the plant has been enlarged until the 
property is now worth at least $100,000. At the present 
time (1907) there is a faculty of twenty-five or thirty 
teachers and an enrollment of more than 300 young lady 
students. 



ii6 The Presbyterian Church 

The " Lees-McRae Institute" — the girls' department at 
Banner Elk, in Watauga county, N. C, and the boys' 
department at Plum Tree, in Mitchell county, N. C. — is 
one of the direct results or products of Synodical Home 
Missions. 

The pioneer evangelist in these counties was the Rev. 
R. P. Pell, who did much in laying the foundation for 
schools and in fostering the desire among the people for 
more and higher education. Mr. Pell was succeeded in 
1895 by Messrs. Edgar Tufts, L. E. Bostian and E. D. 
Brown, in Watauga county, and Mr. L. A. McLaurin, in 
Mitchell county. These brethren had not yet completed 
their seminary course, and they did splendid work during 
the summer months in this field. 

In 1897 the Rev. Edgar Tufts took charge of the field, 
and to him is due the splendid success and wonderful 
progress of the institution at Banner Elk, over which he 
still presides. 

In 1901 the Rev. J. P. Hall became associated with the 
institution, and through his splendid labors the boys' de- 
partment has been transferred, built up and established 
at Plum Tree, in Mitchell county. Mr. Hall has charge 
of this department. 

The following brief outline of the origin and history of 
the institution is here given in the language of the Rev. 
Edgar Tufts: 

"This school had its beginning in a small summer mis- 
sion school taught by two ladies for four months, with 
no guaranteed salary except their expenses. The next 
step was when the evangelist in charge of the field gath- 
ered around an open fire in his own room a handful of the 
largest and most advanced pupils and taught them free of 
charge for several months during the winter of 1898. The 
next step was the following fall, when the matter of build- 



In North Carolina. 117 

ing a high school at Banner Elk was taken up at a mid- 
week prayer meeting and subscriptions received to the 
extent of some $250 in lumber and work. 

'The enterprise having thus been started at home, many 
appeals through papers, through letters and in person 
wer€ made for help with which to finish the buildings. 
After months of hard work, during which a debt was 
never made, the dormitory and a two-room academy 
building were ready for use. 

'The school was first known as the ''Elizabeth iMcRae 
Institute," in honor of Mrs. E. A. ]\IcRae. The name was 
afterwards changed to the Lees-McRae Institute, in honor 
of Mrs. S. P. Lees. These ladies were liberal helpers and 
doners in the founding of the institute 

'The first session of the boarding department was be- 
gun in the fall of 1900 with about a dozen girls in the 
dormitory and two teachers. At the close of the second 
year it was evident that more class room would have to be 
provided for. A new academy was started at once. This 
building was begun like the dormitory,, with a subscrip- 
tion at home. 

"From time to time a few acres of land were added, 
sometimes as donations and sometimes by purchase, until 
to-day the school owns forty-seven acres, through which 
the turbulent water of the Elk river flow. Not only does 
this stream afford picturesque scenery and delightful trout 
fishing, but it has in its bosom a magnificent water-power, 
which some day will doubtless be used to light the school 
with electricity. 

"From the very beginning the Bible has been a daily 
text-book for every pupil in the school. The industrial 
features have also been emphasized and enlarged until 
to-day this course embraces cooking, sewing and basketry. 
The catechisms of the Presbyterian Church have also been 



tt8 The Presbyterian Church 

so constantly brought to the attention of the students that 
over one hundred girls have been awarded Bibles and Tes- 
taments for reciting them. The Christian influence has 
been such that over thirty students have united with the 
church while in school. 

In 1903 two important changes were made: One of 
them was the change in the time of the sessions, so that 
the school now begins in the spring and closes at Christ- 
mas. The object in this change was first to eliminate the 
three severe winter months, and thereby reduce the run- 
ning expenses, and, second, to breakdown as far as possi- 
ble, by running the school in the summer, the too frequent 
custom in the mountains of putting the girls on the farm 
as soon as they are large enough to handle a hoe. The 
other change was moving the boys' department to Plum 
Tree in the adjoining county. 

"The enrollment in these two departments during 1906 
was upwards of 275 students, five of whom are already 
candidates for the ministry." 

The great success and splendid work of Rev. Edgar 
Tufts with the Lees-McRae Institute has been made pos- 
sible by the self-sacrificing and painstaking work of Mrs. 
E. A. MacRae, of Maxton, N. C. This lady was a mem- 
ber of Centre Church, near Maxton, and at her own cost 
and charges, without one cent of reimbursement, taught 
several months during the first years of our work in 
Watauga county when Rev. R. P. Pell was there; and 
just after he left, and by her lovely Christian life, her 
love for souls, and her devotion to her Master, won the 
hearts of those splendid, but rather poor people, of that 
section, gave them a taste and love for better things, and 
thus, in her modest way, laid the foundations for the 
splendid schools which have since received from her and 
others, under the excellent management of Rev. Mr. 
Tufts, the money to carry them on and build them up. 



In North Carolina. 119 

There are a large number of other excellent schools 
which are the direct results of Synodical Missions, but a 
history of their origin cannot be given here. In nearly 
every instance, however, these schools originated through 
the self-sacrificing labors of some godly woman in teach- 
ing a day mission school under the direction of the com- 
mittee or some evangelist. 

There is the "J^^^s Sprunt Institute" at Kenansville, 
N. C, named in honor and memory of the late Rev. 
James M. Sprunt, D. D., and founded by Mr. Henry 
Farrior and Dr. James W. Blount and others, in 1896, 
which is a Female School under the direct control of 
Wilmington Presbytery. It has been a wonderful suc- 
cess, and is a strong arm for mission work in eastern 
North Carolina. It has at present more than one hundred 
pupils, and more than half of them are boarders. Mr. 
J. O. Carr, of Wilmington, N. C, is the President of the 
Board of Trustees, and for a time the Rev. R. V. Lancas- 
ter had charge of the school. The present principal is 
Miss Blanche Boyd, formerly a teacher, matron and 
editor of the Synod's Orphans' Home at Barium Springs, 
North Carolina. 

The splendid '^Westminster School'' at Brittain, N. C, 
established largely through the efforts of the Rev. R. C. 
Morrison, and under the fine management of Rev. W. R. 
Minter, in the providence of God," has educated many 
poor boys and girls and fitted them for usefulness in life, 
and is a missionary agency of great power and influence 
in King's Mountain Presbytery. 

The school at Canton under the management of Rev. 
J. C. Hardin, and the schools at Crabtree, Dillsboro, Rob- 
binsville, Barnardsville, Hughes and other places in the 
western part of the State. 

The Elise High School at Hemp, the Englewood 



I20 The Presbyterian Church 

School at Albemarle, the Stanly Hall School, and the 
Clarkton High School, besides a great number of mis- 
sion schools of lower grade. These schools are educating 
scores and hundreds of girls and boys all over the State, 
and their influence is immense and far-reaching for the 
glory of God and the uplifting of humanity. 

In 1888 the Rev. Dr. Rumple presented a paper to 
synod on 'Tarochial Schools," urging the churches, when- 
ever practicable, to establish parochial schools for pri- 
mary and classical instruction under their own super- 
vision, and at the same time the Rev. Dr. Mclllwain sub- 
mitted the annual report on education. In these papers 
not a single mission school is mentioned or reported, and 
while Peace Institute, the Charlotte, Statesville and Floral 
colleges are mentioned as Presbyterian schools, Davidson 
College is the only school mentioned as being under direct 
church control. 

At the present time (1907), after a lapse of nineteen 
years, the great number of schools and colleges now in 
operation and under church control will show how great 
have been the results and the progress along educational 
lines. 

In 1888 there were five Presbyteries, 122 ministers, 262 
churches and 22,553 communicants in the synod. In 1907 
there are eight Presbyteries, 179 ministers, 423 churches, 
and 39,788 communicants. 

In 1888 the aggregate amount of funds raised in the 
synod was $144,692, and in 1907 the amount was more 
than $344,913. 

In 1888, according to the reports given by the stated 
clerks of the Presbyteries, there were thirty-one counties 
in the State without a single Presbyterian church, and 
fifteen counties with one church in each, making a total 
of forty-six counties practically without Presbyterianism 
within their borders. 



In North Carolina. 121 

There is a confusion in the numbers given of the va- 
cant counties, from time to time, and this confusion arises 
from the fact that in some of the counties given "with 
one church each/' there was only a church building and 
not an organization ; and besides, it is not easy to ascer- 
tain the exact time of the organization of some of the 
new churches. There were really more than thirty-one 
counties without a Presbyterian organization in 1888, and 
it is not claimed that the Synodical Movement has done 
all the organizing and aggressive mission work since 
then, but it has done much of it, and has stimulated Pres- 
byteries and individuals to activity, which have brought 
about the great changes since the Movement began. As 
nearly as can be ascertained, when the Synodical Mission 
work was begun, there were no organized Presbyterian 
churches in the following counties, viz. : Alleghany, Ashe, 
Bertie, Brunswick, Camden, Carteret, Clay, Cherokee, 
Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Graham, Greene, Hyde, 
Hertford, Jackson, Johnston, Jones, Madison, Martin, 
Mitchell, Northampton, Onslow, Pamlico, Perquimans, 
Person, Pitt, Polk, Stokes, Swain, Tyrrell, Watauga, 
Washington, Yadkin, and Yancey, making a total of thir- 
ty-six. In the counties of Halifax, Lenoir, Pasquotank, 
and Stanly, the single organizations were new and ex- 
ceedingly weak, and in about thirteen other counties 
there was but one church only in each, making a sum 
total of about fifty-three. 

Since 1888, to the beginning of 1907, there have been 
reported to the Synod the organization of 187 new 
churches in the State. There are now (1907) eight Pres- 
byteries, 186 ministers, 428 churches, and 40,750 com- 
municants. 

The counties without a Presbvterian church within the 



122 The Presbyterian Church 

State at the present time are thirteen in mimber, and are 
as follows: Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, 
Gates, Greene, Hertford, Northampton, Pamlico, Per- 
quimans, Tyrrell and Washington. 

In 1888 there were six Presbyterial evangelists within 
the bounds of the synod giving their whole time to the 
work, while there were perhaps as many more ministers 
giving a part of their time to evangelistic work. In 1907, 
according to the last reports from the Presbyteries, there 
were 21 evangelists at work in the Presbyteries, and the 
superintendent of Synodical Missions reported 27 minis- 
ters as having served regularly 71 small churches and 70 
mission points; 1,389 persons made a public profession of 
faith during the year, and 708 of these joined the Pres- 
byterian church." In addition to these ministers, there is 
a great host of laymen and teachers, male and female, 
w^ho are engaged in evangelistic work, especially during 
the summer months, teaching and preaching the Gospel 
throughout the State. 

In 1888 Biblical institutes, mission conferences and 
Bible teachers' training schools and associations of various 
kinds for spreading the Gospel were unknown in North 
Carolina; but at the present time they are of common 
occurrence and wdthin the reach of all. 

We cannot claim that all these facts and conditions as 
we have them to-day are the direct results of Synodical 
Home Missions, inaugurated in 1888, but many of them 
are, and in after years it will be seen more clearly than 
now that the great "movement" at that time w^as more far- 
reaching and of infinitely more importance than those 
who participated in it ever dreamed. And there will be 
no backward step. The watchword is Onward ! Higher, 
and yet higher! Towards the great possibilities which 
God has set before the church for his own glory in the 
salvation of men ! 



In North Carolina. 123 

The promise to Joshua and the children of Israel was 
'' Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, 
that have I given thee," and every student of Bible history 
knows that not anything like all of this land was ever 
taken by the children of Israel, and why ? Simply because 
God put the condition in, that their feet should tread upon 
it — that is, take possession of it, and that could not be 
done without a contest, a fight strong and in some cases 
long continued; this the children of Israel did not have 
faith to undertake. 

The same principle holds to-day. The different denom- 
inations have done much in possessing the land for Christ, 
as has been seen from a perusal of these pages, the Pres- 
byterian church in North Carolina has done a good part, 
but we cannot fail to be impressed with how little we 
have done in comparison with what we ought to have done 
and what we could easily have done. Such reflections 
are sad, but instead of becoming discouraged thereby, we 
should be determined to put forth more and better directed 
efforts to overtake the destitutions in our own land and 
reach out to other lands, too. Let no one imagine that 
the work is done, that we can rest on our oars, for in the 
great State of North Carolina there are now (1907) still 
counties in which we have no Presbyterian church, and 
there are still several counties in which we have only one 
church. Besides all this, it is estimated that there are 
600,000 white persons over the age of ten years within 
this State that do not belong to any church, that make 
no profession of Christianity, and when you add to this 
the large number of professors who are probably still un- 
converted and the still larger number of colored people 
who are out of Christ, it will be seen at once that there is 
much land still to be possessed. 

When we think of this vast army marching down the 



124 The Presbyterian Church 

rough pathway of time to eternity's shore and who have 
not made Jesus their friend, and take into account our 
boasted and real wealth, our splendid opportunities for 
carrying and sending the Gospel to them, and especially 
when we consider that these are not only men and women 
with souls, but are our own kith and kin, we stand amazed 
and appalled at the spectacle and wonder how we can be 
so apathetical and take things so easy, but let us not stand 
by and do nothing, but go ourselves and send others 
before it is too late. It is too late to reach the thousands 
who died without Christ, it is too late to possess some of 
the land for our church, the former opportunities are gone 
and the latter have in many cases been taken by our sister 
churches while we stood by and offered resolutions, re- 
viewed minutes, tried cases, appointed committees and 
such like. It is now time to awaken and to work. There 
are splendid opportunities still offering, and doors still 
open. Do we not hear the Lord saying, "Whom shall I 
send, and who will go for us?" Let us answer, '' Here am 
I ; send me." L^nless this call is heard, there is another 
message with which we are much concerned, and that is : 
" Son of man, I have made thee a watchman to the house 
of Israel. Hear the word at my mouth and give them 
warning from me. When I say unto the wicked, thou 
shalt surely die and thou givest him not warning .... 
the same wicked man shall die in his iniquity, but his 
blood will I require at thy hand." 
God is calling yet; shall we not go? 




REV. JAMES I. VaSCE, D. D. 



EVANGELISTIC AND MISSIONARY 
ADDRESSES, 



Rev. JAMES I. VANCE, D. D., 
Rev. WILBUR CHAPMAN, D. D. 
Rev. S. L. MORRIS, D. D., 
Rev. WILLIAM BLACK. 



FOREWORD. 

History is written, not only that we may be made ac- 
quainted with the facts, but that, knowing them, we should 
be able to make some practical use of them, such for ex- 
ample as imitating the noble examples, avoiding the mis- 
takes, and of correcting in ourselves what has been seen 
defective in others. 

Trusting that the study of the history contained in this 
volume may have been thus beneficial to you, and with 
a desire to assist you in making application of these facts, 
this brief volume of addresses is added. 

This fact, that the Presbyterian church has been slow 
to use the evangelistic arm of the church, is made clear as 
we have gone over the record of its work for more than 
one hundred years. It is clear that our denomination has 
suffered from this neglect, and equally clear that, where- 
ever and whenever this important work has been faith- 
fully done, there has been a wonderful blessing attending. 

In the Bible, God says : "And he gave some apostles, 
and some prophets, and some evangelists and some pas- 
tors and teachers, for the perfecting of the saints, for the 
work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of 
Christ." Yet, notwithstanding this plain teaching, that 
evangelists are God-given agencies, our church has not 
only made very little use of the same, but has looked upon 
the evangelistic office as a sort of secondary one, and the 
work done by evangelists as superficial and questionable, 
and the man undertaking to exercise the gift, as a sort 
of self-appointed agency, whereas in truth, the evange- 
list has equal divine authority with apostles, prophets 
and pastors. 



128 The Presbyterian Church 

In the failure of the Presbyterian church to make full 
use of this most important office, in our use of the pas- 
toral office almost to the exclusion of other agencies, is 
one explanation of its comparatively small numbers com- 
pared with two other churches in our State. Not only 
so, but in failing to use the evangelistic office together 
with all other helps, much desirable territory has been 
taken possession of by other denominations, and our 
church thereby practically excluded, souls have gone into 
eternity from whole counties, without hearing one word 
about Christ and His blessed salvation, fro]n our church. 

Perhaps the greatest loss to our church is the evangel- 
istic and missionary spirit and the great reflex benefit 
that always comes to the faithful church in doing evange- 
listic and mission work. Shall we not azvake, and arise 
and go and do this great work? 

These addresses are, therefore, sent forth, with the 
earnest hope that every one who reads them may be filled 
with a holy enthusiasm for the salvation of souls, may 
be able to see the importance of keeping a large supply of 
evangelists always in the field, not only in foreign, but 
in our own lands, and above all, that every pastor and 
every member may see that, filled with this missionary 
spirit, there are splendid opportunities for doing this 
work, in every community, and seeing the opportunities, 
seize them and use them at once. Every pastor can and 
should be both a pastor and an evangelist, and an evan- 
gelistic pastor will be sure to make members with the 
true evangelistic and mission spirit throbbing within their 
hearts. 

Use every gift, ministers, elders, deacons, Sunday- 
school teachers, private members, all have them. Make 
your life count, your money, your musical talent, your 
life, your all. Use it for the Master, now. 



IF MY COUNTRY WERE HEATHEN. 

By Rev. James I. Vance, D. D. 

In the opening chapter of his letter to the Church at 
Rome, the greatest of missionaries says: ''I am debtor." 

He announces his obHgations, he proclaims his liabili- 
ties, he declares his indebtedness, he tells us what he owes. 
He is heavily embarrassed. But it is not the fact of debt 
that distresses him. He is not worried for fear he may 
be unable to meet his obligations. It is anxiety lest 
somehow he may shirk payment that stirs him. Having 
announced the fact that he is in debt, he names his credi- 
tors. "I am debtor both to the Greeks and to the Bar- 
barians." How can he owe these people anything? He 
has never had any financial transactions with them. They 
do not know him, and he does not know them. They 
have never heard of him, and he can refer to them only 
by their nationality. To people with whom he has had 
no business dealings and no commercial correspondence 
and not the remotest personal contact, Paul says, 'T am 
debtor." 

Having named his creditors, he tells how he proposes 
to meet his obligations. "So as much as in me is, I am 
ready to preach the gospel." Paul proposes to pay his 
debts by preaching the gospel. It is a strange method of 
debt-paying. It is rather an airy way of facing one's 
creditors. It is somewhat emotional. It is altogether 
too sentimental a plan of cancelling indebtedness. "Paul, 
you would better get down to a cash basis." Paul, how- 
ever, has full confidence in the currency he proposes to 
ase. He is not afraid that it will go to protest. He has 



130 The Presbyterian Church 

no fear that it will be rejected or even questioned. He 
says, "I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it 
is the power of God unto salvation to every one that 
believeth." 

Stranger than the list of creditors and stranger than 
the proposed method of payment, is the ground of obliga- 
tion. Paul is in debt because he has been blessed. We 
regard debt as the sequence of disaster or as the result Df 
limitation. Paul has incurred debt by riches receive.!. 
He is a debtor to preach the gospel because he has re- 
ceived the gospel. He owes Christ to others because hi 
has Christ himself. He must not be selfish. What Christ 
is to him, he can and would be to every human life. 
Paul has no right to sit still and enjoy the blessings of 
redemption, while others are in need of that which he 
can give. 

This is a brand new kind of obligation. It is an un- 
heard of sort of debt. It is the Christian view of privi- 
lege. It is this conception of obligation that makes the 
Christian church a missionary church. 

The Church is Missionary or Nothing. 

Every Christian is a debtor. He is involved. Having 
announced, in the opening chapter of this his greatest 
epistle, the fact that he is in debt, Paul proceeds in the 
following chapters to discuss the great doctrines of Chris- 
tianitv — atonement, justification, adoption, sanctification, 
election, assurance — until in the eighth chapter he is 
ready for a great conclusion. What do these doctrines 
amount to? This: 'Therefore we are debtors." Then 
he continues the discussion until in the fifteenth chapter of 
the epistle he is making the practical application of doc- 
trine to duty and says: 'Their debtors they are." 



In North Carolina. 131 

The Christian's debt is fact, argument, conchision, ap- 
pHcation, all. 

And it is not the fact of debt that should distress him, 
nor the fear that he may be unable to meet his obliga- 
tions that should worry him, but anxiety lest he may 
somehow shirk his responsibilities that should stir him. 

The Christian is debtor to people he has never seen. 
They do not know him and he does not know them. They 
have never heard of him and he can refer to them only 
by their nationality. His creditors are Greeks and Bar- 
barians^ people of culture and people without culture, 
people of China, of India, of Africa, of the islands of the 
sea, all people of any land who have never heard the gos- 
pel and who do not know of Christ. 

The only way the Christian can pay his debt is with 
the gospel. He need not be afraid that it will be re- 
jected. It is what the world most needs. It is the cur- 
rency with which God meets his obligations to mankind ; 
and if the mighty God could cancel his debt to the human 
race with the gospel, surely it will pay mine to my fellow 
man. If it was sufficient to make eternal payment of the 
liabilities of Jehovah, I need not fear it will go to protest 
when offered in payment of my obligations. 

My debt was contracted in the same way as Paul's. 
I am a Christian. Some one or many made it possible 
for me to hear the gospel. It was not because I deserved 
it. I had done nothing to merit such a favor. It is all 
of grace. I do not know why I was born in a Christian 
instead of a pagan or heathen land. I do not know why I 
was born in a Christian home, with parents who belonged 
to the church and whose first care was that I should know 
and love their Saviour. You do not know why that 
little daughter whom you love better than your life was 
not born in India, where ?he might have been a child- 



132 The Presbyterian Church 

widow at the tender age of twelve years; or in China, 
where the birth of a daughter is regarded as a calamity. 
But somehow I know him, whom to know aright is life 
eternal. I have a Christian's view of God and man and 
the world and home and country and heaven, and because 
I have, I am debtor. Shame on me, if in such a day of 
grace, I close tightly- onf what I have received, and 
doubling down in stolid selfishness, repudiate my debts ! 

Ours is a Christian Country. 

Because it is, it is a good country in which to live. 
The fact that it is Christian, helps to make it a profitable 
country in which to do business. Because it is Christian, 
it is a good country in which to bring up children, ro 
have friends, to own property, to follow a trade, to prac- 
tice a profession. It is far from being perfect, to be sure. 
There is much that might be better. But the bad is not 
because of the land's Christianity. It is in spite of it. 
America has social and civic blemishes because it is not 
as Christian as it might be. It is the Christianity it has 
that makes it a land wlTere personal liberty is guaranteed, 
human life held in high esteem, childhood protected, 
womanhood respected, home honored, wifehood and 
motherhood reverenced, and things that are true and 
beautiful and good celebrated and sought. 

Suppose this were not a Christian country. We are so 
accustomed to it that we are wont to take our Chris- 
tianity as a matter of course. Suppose this were a heathen 
country. All countries are not Christian. There are 
heathen countries in the world. What if America were 
one of these heathen countries? What changes would 
take place? 

I have never been in a heathen land. I have been in 



In North Carolina. 133 

some American cities, where Christianity was at low ebb, 
and where the seething tide of wanton vice and immoraU- 
ty reigned. I have been through certain neglected sec- 
tions of great American cities where the sodden wretched- 
ness of human misery rotted in damps of sin whose ig- 
norance bordered on the night of heathenism. But I have 
never been in a city where heathenism reigned. I cannot 
answer the question as well as some missionary who has 
seen a heathen city ; and seen it not as the passing tourist 
who sees only its strange shows and curious sights, but 
who has gone down into its awful decay and breathed its 
moral stench and come into living contact with its blank, 
black despair. While I cannot answer the question as 
well as such a missionary, I can at least give a partial 
answer, and name some of the things that must go with 
the loss of our Christianity. 

If Ours were a Heathen Country. 

The first to go would be the churches. We should have 
to tear down every Christian church and close every 
Sunday-school and wipe out every mission. We should 
have to raze the Young Men's Christian Associations. 
It would stop the mouth of every preacher and abolish 
Sunday as a day of worship and as a day of rest. This 
is the first and most evident change to take place. The 
churches and all that they stand for must go. This is not 
all. 

We must close the public schools. There are no public 
schools like ours in a heathen land. One of our mis- 
sionary agencies is the day school. The public schools 
are not free of faults. It is an easy achievement to criti- 
cize them, but they are vastly better than the conditions 
they supplanted, and they are immeasurably better than 



134 The Presbyterian Church 

no scliools. The preacher who declared the public schools 
are turning out a generation of "lusty young pagans," 
said what very few believe and what the facts do not 
warrant. The public school system is an indirect product 
of Christianity. We should lose it if ours were a heathen 
land. 

Then the hospitals would go. They do not exist in 
heathen lands, save as they have been introduced by Chris- 
tianity. The hospital is one of the missionary enterprises 
of the church. In India, Dr. Scudder in charge of a 
hospital to which thousands come to be healed, is doing 
three men's work. If this were a heathen country, we 
should have to close our hospitals for cripples, for chil- 
dren, for the sick poor, for the homeless sick, for con- 
tagious diseases, and for the manifold diseases and ills to 
which flesh is heir. We must give up the medical pro- 
fession as we have it now. Then if a man should fall on 
the streets, there would be no ambulance to carry him 
and no cot to receive him. Should your child fall ill, 
there would be no physician to come with intelligent skill 
and healing remedies to the little sufferer ; but instead a 
creature, with wild incantations, to add plague and tor- 
ture to the already sickness of the body. 

Next to go would be the orphan asylums and homes 
for the aged and friendless, and institutions for the care 
of defectives anH afflicted. We should have to tear down 
the homes for the insane, where those who have lost their 
reason find a refuge. All of the aged and helpless people 
and the defenceless children must be turned out in the 
storm and left on the streets should ours become a heathen 
land. 

The next to go would be our organized charities, for 
there is no organized charity in a heathen city. We should 
have to relinquish the Bureaus of Associated Charities 



In North Carolina. 135 

with their sane and unselfish work ; the charitable socie- 
ties with their splendid beneficence; the industrial homes 
and the rescue missions, where the man out of work and 
the prisoner fresh from serving his sentence may find 
a helping hand ; the Florence Crittenton Homes, where 
the sinning and outcast may step through a door of hope ; 
and all those other agencies by which the needy and the 
worthless are lifted to self-help and set on the road to 
industry and respectability. 

If ours were a heathen land^ we should lose the city 
governments under which we live. It is frequentlv the 
ground of just complaint because of existing abuses, but 
compared with what passes for government in a heathen 
city, it is as day to dark. We denounce the system of 
"graft" which obtains to a greater or less extent in many 
American cities, but the ''graft" we groan over is a virtue 
compared with the shameless extortions and brazen in- 
justices practiced by the heathen officials of a Chinese 
city. Civilization with its free institutions, its sense of 
justice, its respect for law and order is the outcome of 
Christianity. With an oriental miscalled court of justice 
and its reign of terror instead of wdiat we have, property 
values would tumble, trade would suffer irreparable loss 
and conditions of living would become far harder. 

This is not all that would happen, were America to be- 
come heathen. There are invisible values, more precious 
even than those I have mentioned, we should lose. It 
would take from us our immortal hope and faith in 
Christ, our Christian experience with all its peace and 
fortitude. If America were heathen, we should be 
heathen ! 

Recently 1 was shown two photographs. The first was 
of a man suffering from club foot ! He was terribly de- 
formed and badly crippled. His deformity was a handi- 



136 The Presbyterian Church 

cap that made existence hard and work difficult. The 
second was of the same man, taken three months later, 
after he had been healed by a Christian surgeon. The 
deformity was gone. The man stood square and flat- 
footed on two good feet, and was ready to measure equal 
with his fellows in the race of life. 

That kind of relief is a great boon, and that is a part 
of the work of missions. Christianity has a gospel for 
the body. But there is a blessing infinitely more precious. 
It also takes the deformity out of the soul. It was spir- 
itual as well as physical hurts the prophet had in mind 
when he proclaimed the blessings of the gospel age and 
cried, ''Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the 
tongue of the dumb shall sing." 

All this would go, were ours a heathen country. You 
could not say, 'The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not 
want." You could not pray, "Our Father, which art in 
heaven." You could not teach the children, "God so 
loved the world, as to give his only begotton Son." 

There is one thing more that would happen should 
America become heathen. We should have to go to the 
cemeteries and erase every inscription of hope from the 
memorial stones over the resting places of our beloved 
dead. No minister v^ould stand by our side as the clods 
fall on the coffined dust and say, "But we look for the 
general resurrection and the life of the world to come." 
There would be no word of hope and no vision of home. 
No invisible but real Friend would stand near us in our 
sorrow and whisper to listening faith, "Let not your 
heart be troubled. Ye believe in God, believe also in me. 
In my Father's house are many mansions." We, and our 
city, and our dead should all be heathen. 

These are some of the things that must take place. It 
is no fancy sketch. The best must go. Who would care 



In North Carolina. 



137 



to remain in a city so spoiled? You are saying that life 
would be intolerable with all these gone. So it would 
for those who have once tasted the gospel. It is Chris- 
tianity that makes America a good land in which to live. 
And America is Christian, because in the march of events 
there were men and women who felt as Paul did and who 
said : "We are debtors." "We have received and we must 
give." It will be kept Christian only by such people. 
And the cities which are now heathen will become Chris- 
tian only as those who have heard of Christ recognize 
their obligation and pay their debts. 

The Missionary Motive. 

This is the reigning missionary motive — 'T am debtor." 
No one wHo dwells in a Christian land and is a bene- 
ficiary of Christian civilization, whether he believe in the 
personal Christ or not, can repudiate this obligation, with- 
out condemning himself at the bar of God and mankind. 
A man says to me, 'T do not believe in Foreign Mis- 
sions." I ask him, "Then what do you believe in? If 
you do not believe in Foreign Missions, you do not be- 
lieve in Christianity, you do not believe in humanity, you 
do not believe in philanthrophy, you do not believe in 
charity, you do not believe in education, you do not be- 
lieve in character, you do not believe in fraternity. What 
do you believe in? If you do not believe in Foreign 
Missions, you do not believe in anything worth believing 
in." The missionary enterprise is the enterprise of man- 
kind. 

There has been a development of the missionary 
motive. 

There was a time when, in order to incite to mission- 
ary zeal, it was deemed necessary to pass sentence whole- 



138 The Presbyterian Church 

sale on all pagan and heathen religions, and denounce 
them as utterly bad and altogether false. The compara- 
tive study of religions has shown us that, while there is 
a mighty difference between Christianity and the old-time 
faiths, nevertheless pagan and heathen religions do pro- 
claim many noble sentiments and insist on the practice of 
many admirable virtues. 

We are finding, however, that to secure an adequate 
missionary motive it is not necessary to pass wholesale 
condemnation on either the heathen world or its reli- 
gions. There is a higher and a mightier motive. It is 
that which stirred Paul when he cried, "I am debtor." 
The fact that I have Christ, a divine Redeemer, puts me 
in debt to all who have not heard of Him. President 
Charles Cuthbert Hall, when he returned from delivering 
a course of lectures on Christianity in India, declared that 
after coming into contact with the best culture of the 
East, and after taking into account all that is admirable 
in the people and in their religion, he came back with a 
stronger faith in Jesus Christ as the divine Saviour of 
men. with a more solemn sense of responsibility to preach 
Him to all men, and with a deeper conviction that He 
alone can meet the social, civil and spiritual needs of the 
world. 

What is needed is for this conviction of debt to the 
heathen to take possession of the church. It is not mere- 
ly the sending out of a few more missionaries. We need 
to send them and many more. It is not merely the giving 
of a few more dollars. We need to give thousands where 
we are giving hundreds. But in addition to all else, 
there is needed the moving, steady, resistless, cumula- 
tive momentum of the conviction that every Christian is 
a debtor and that he can cancel his debt only with the 
gospel. There need be no fear that the church may do 



In North Carolina. 139 

loo much for this cause. Someone asked Phillips Brooks 
what he would do were he called to take charge of a 
church heavily involved in debt, greatly discouraged and 
rapidly disintegrating. He replied: "The first thing I 
should do would be to take up a collection for Foreign 
Missions." The church need not be afraid it will bank- 
rupt itself in paying its debt to the heathen. 

A Missionary Hero. 

Several years ago, on the threshold of my ministry, 
I became pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church in 
Alexandria, Va. On the first Sunday of the New Year, 
January ist, 1888, I received into the church a lad of 
eleven years of age named Frank Slaymaker. He w^as 
the first to unite with the church on profession of faith 
during my ministry in Alexandria. The incident was my 
introduction to one of the most devotedly Christian fami- 
lies in the parish. He had a brother, Henry, two years 
his senior, who was already in the church, and a sister 
a few years older still. These three with their widowed 
mother made the household. Mrs. Slaymaker gave 
her children to the church she did so without reservation. 
The boys developed in their Christian characters and 
were active in Christian work. Henry was elected an 
elder on reaching young manhood. 

One of the most interesting and important missions in 
Africa is the Congo Mission of the Southern Presbyterian 
Church, with a church organization at Luebo, 1,000 miles 
from the coast, numbering over 2,000 members. It has 
also been the costliest mission of the church both in 
money and workers. For two years the Southern Church 
had been praying for a business manager for this mis- 
sion. Henry Slaymaker, with a bright business career 



140 The Presbyterian Church 

before him at home, offered himself and was accepted. 
It was deemed best that he should be sent out as an or- 
dained minister. He was examined and ordained an "ex- 
traordinary case." He had never attended a theological 
seminary, but his examination was so satisfactory that a 
member of the Presbytery declared ''his examination 
showed his mother to be a better teacher than a theologi- 
cal seminary." 

A few weeks after young Slaymaker sailed for the 
mission field the newspapers published a cablegram say- 
ing that the mission steamer Lapsley, in ascending the 
Congo, had captized, and that the Rev. Henry Slaymaker 
and twenty-three natives had been drowned. 

Just as he was reaching the field where he was so 
sorely needed and for which he was so peculiarly fitted, 
he was taken. We cannot understand such a loss. Is it 
a loss? No, it is a glorious investment. Since Christ 
laid down his life for the world's redemption no life simi- 
larly consecrated is lost, whether death come soon or late. 

At the memorial service of Henry Slaymaker in his 
home church in Alexandria, they actually gathered a me- 
morial offering to raise the Lapsley and prosecute the 
work. It is such splendid faith as this that will conquer 
the world. 

In a letter one of the secretaries said to the church : 
''There must be no turning back now. On to Luebo must 
be our cry!" 

Splendid heroism ! The devotion of this young martyr 
has already fired the faith of others. Christ gave his life. 
What am I giving? It is the cause to which I can never 
give too much, and, in which what I do, never can be lost. 

/ am debtor! God help me to pay my debts! 



THE EVANGELISTIC PASTOR. 

By Rev. J. Wilbur Chapmax, D. D. 

Just what is an evangelistic pastor? Perhaps we shall 
better reach an understanding concerning his position if 
we answer the question negatively. 

First: He is not of necessity one who preaches con- 
stantly along what is known as evangelistic lines. There 
are very many people to-day who seem to think that 
the pastor is not doing evangelistic work unless he is 
regularly giving an invitation in so many words and all 
the time calling men to repent. This is not necessarily 
true, as we shall show later, for frequently the best invi- 
tation is not spoken by the lips — but by the very presence 
of the man of God. 

Second : He is not always one who is conspicuous 
because of great additions to his membership. There are 
men to-day whose additions have been exceedingly small 
who are as thoroughly evangelistic as those whose suc- 
cess has been far more remarkable. With the minister 
as with the church, it is the spirit that counts. If he has 
a real concern for the lost, if he lives a life of fellowship 
with Christ, he could choose any theme for his people 
and it would be apparent to all his hearers that he was 
longing for the lost to know Christ. 

He need not of necessity close every sermon with an 
appeal, although that is frequently the best thing to do, 
for in so doing we impress our hearers with our confi- 
dence in our message and our expectation of results. 

The minister of the seminary church where I was a 



142 The Presbyterian Church 

student one evening preached a sermon and then returned 
to his home utterly discouraged because he felt that he 
was a failure in the ministry, and he practically deter- 
mined that he would never preach again, yet at the same 
time he was conscious that he had been greatly burdened 
for the lost. Some time past midnight his door-bell rang, 
and the leader of his choir, who had been counted a skep- 
tic, came to him to say, "Doctor, I am in an agony con- 
cerning my soul. Your sermon to-night has convicted 
me of my sin and I must have help or I shall die." In a 
very short time he was rejoicing in Christ. Then said 
the minister to him, ''What was it in my sermon that 
moved you, I should like to have you tell me." The man 
replied : "It was not so much, sir, what you said but the 
way you said it. I could see by the look in your eye and 
by the very pathos in your voice that you were longing 
for men to be saved and I could not resist your message." 
But there is a positive answer to the question to-day. Let 
us consider that side of it. 

First : That man is evangelistic who is truly a man of 
prayer and Bible study, and yet at the same time one of 
intense earnest action. The greatest fanatics I know are 
those w^ho study the Bible and pray almost without ceas- 
ing and then stop with these devotions. They do not 
fit into practice in their daily lives the message God gave 
them in his Word and the vision he vouchsafed unto 
them in their prayers, so on the one side there must be 
prayer and Bible study; we cannot have too much of it, 
while on the other side there is the translation into life 
of those things which God has given us. It was thus that 
Finney prayed, read God's Word and worked, and it 
was thus that Mr. Moody lived and preached. 

Second: That man is evangelistic in his preaching 
who realizes that men are lost without Christ, and that 



In North Carolina. 143 

the Gospel is the only way of salvation. He believes that 
it is not so much a question either of character or conduct 
primarily as of the new birth. He realizes that "the 
wages of sin is death, and the soul that sinneth it shall 
die." With such a conviction as this, if he is true to 
his ordination vows and also true to the Word of God, 
he can preach in no halting, hesitating way. 

An old Scotch woman went to hear Robert Murray Mc- 
Cheyenne preach for the first time. Some one asked her 
what she thought of him. She hesitated for a moment 
and then said, what I am sure any true minister had 
rather have said about him than that he was the most 
brilliant preacher among men. She said : '^The man 
preaches as if he was a-dyin' to have you converted." 
Oh, for isuch a spirit as this in the ministry to-day. Thank 
God for the men who have great intellectual power, for 
those who bear well their scolastic honors to which they 
are certainly entitled, but is it not true that what we 
need to-day more than anything else is a gracious out- 
pouring of the Holy Ghost, an energizing of that power 
which comes only from on high, that we may preach for 
souls ? 

The pastor is pre-eminently the soul winner in his own 
parish. No one can take his place. If he is not faithful 
to those over whom God has made him the overseer, he 
shall be called to account at the judgment seat of Christ. 
Whatever we may believe concerning the office of the 
evangelist, and we must believe thoroughly in this, how- 
ever necessary it may be that we should give him his 
rightful place in the church, *and many agree that this is 
almost an absolute necessity, yet no evangelist can sup- 
plant the pastor in the matter of soul-winning. But if the 
pastor is to be successful, there are certain points which 
must be emphasized concerning his life, and this to a 



144 The Presbyterian Church 

greater degree even than in the experience of the ordi- 
nary pastor of a church who may hold a congregation 
together because of eloquent or intellectual achievements, 
because of winning social qualities or by a striking per- 
sonality. Xo pastor can ever be a soul winner without 
attention is given to, 

First : His private life. One might preach an ordinary 
sermon and by force of intellect or power of magnetism 
interest an assembly. I have in mind a man who for years 
led an impure life, yet, while he interested his congre- 
gation with his masterful gifts, he never won a soul to 
the ]\Iaster, and if any one should say in answer to. this, 
''But are there not evangelists whose lives are unclean 
and yet who have a measure of success?" my answer 
would be, ''The evangelist may be reaping a harvest the 
seed of which has been sown by some godly pastor," and 
so the illustration still holds. But to be a soul winner is 
entirely different. The private life must be taken into 
account. There are trees, the spread of whose roots 
under ground equals the spread of their branches above 
ground, and this leads me to say that no man can be a 
soul winner in the ministry without he is right in his 
home, right in his study, right in his devotion, right in 
his heart, or in other words, lives in private what he 
preaches in public. Our people forget our texts, they 
frequently forget our particular forms of expression, but 
the spirit of the message we have delivered is about 
them not infrequently for a lifetime. 

A prominent American preacher told me that he once 
preached in Robert Murray McCheyenne's pulpit, and 
he asked if any one there had heard ]\IcCheyenne preach. 
One old man was brought to the front. ''Can you tell 
me," said the minister, "some of the texts of jMcChey- 
enne?" and the old man made reply, 'T don't remember 



In North Carolina. 145 

them." ''Then can you tell me some sentences he used?" 
and again the reply was, 'T have entirely forgotten 
them." With a feeling of disappointment, the great 
preacher said, "Well, don't you remember anything about 
him at all?" "Ah," said the man, "that is a different 
question. I do remember something about him. When 
I was a lad by the roadside playing, one day Robert 
Murray McCheyenne came along, and laying his hand 
upon my head, he said, 'Jamie, lad, I am away to see 
your poor sick sister,' and then looking into my eyes, he 
said, 'And Jamie, I am very concerned about your own 
soul.' I have forgotten his texts and his sermons, sir, but 
I can feel the tremble of his hand and I can still see the 
tear in his eye." 

Let us remember it is not so much what we say as the 
way we say it that constitutes the minister the soul 
winner. 

Second: The very greatest attention must be paid to 
the prayer life if the pastor is to be a winner of souls, 
and I doubt not but that the most of us fail just here, 
largely because of the fact that we are so busy, for very 
few people understand the responsibility and obligations 
resting upon a pastor; from morning until night and 
often night till morning he is at the call of his people and 
of the citizens of the city or town where he may live, 
and it is such an easy thing to pray in a perfunctory sort 
of way or not to pray at all. A very few may be un- 
mindful of prayer because of selfishness, a few others 
because of indifference, but perhaps many of us because 
we do not appreciate what the power of prayer is. 

In the revival of 1857, when Canon Ryle sent out his 
celebrated appeal to the Church of England, he made 
this statement, that he had looked the Bible through and 
found that wherever there was a man of prayer there was 



146 The Presbyterian Church 

a man of power; that he had studied the history of the 
Church and had learned that wherever there was a man 
or woman of power, there was one who knew how to 
pray. He said some were Armenians, some Calvinists, 
some rich, some poor, some were wise and some ignorant, 
some loved the liturgy and some cared little for it, but 
all knew how to pray. 

Jesus was an illustration of this. In Mark we read, 
"A great while before day he went away to pray." He 
was the Son of God, yet he would not begin a day with- 
out prayer. It is to be noticed, however, that the day 
begun thus with prayer ended with the healing of the 
leper. If the Son of God could not start the day without 
communing with God, how dangerous it is for any of 
us to try it. 

In Matthew we learn that after he had fed the multi- 
tudes, he went away in a quiet place to pray. He had 
just worked the miracle, and yet he prays. I have a 
friend in heaven who used to say that it is more difficult 
to use a victory than to gain one, by which she meant that 
the most dangerous day for us was the day following 
a mountain-top experi-ence, for we are so liable to try 
to live upon the past rather than upon the present prom- 
ises of God. Jesus prayed before the miracle and after 
the miracle, by day and by night. What a rebuke he is 
to some of us. 

In Luke we read that as he prayed, the fashion of his 
countenance was changed. To my mind this is one of the 
best illustrations. It will be a glad day in the church 
when those of us who know Christ show by our faces 
that we have been in fellowship with him. There is some- 
thing about the look of the eye, the ring of the voice and 
the atmosphere of a man who knows how to pray that 
carries conviction always. 



In North Carolina. 147 

In John we read that he stooped down at the grave of 
Lazarus after he had prayed, and said, ''Lazarus, come 
forth." 

I had a letter one day from some one who wanted me 
to write on a postal card the rules for soul winning. 
This seemed a strange request, when I remembered that 
I had a book in my library larger than my Bible on '^How 
to Win Souls," and yet you can write the rules upon a 
postal card. Indeed, there is but one rule, *'Lord, teach 
us to pray." The man who knows how to pray in the 
right way is a soul winner always. Whatever may be 
one's intellectual ability therefore, without prayer he is 
weak in this direction. This is true whether he" is in the 
pulpit or in the pew, whether he is a Sunday-school 
teacher, or the superintendent, or just a member of the 
Church. 

Third : If the pastor is to be a soul winner, close at- 
tention must be paid to his public life. It must in every 
sense accord with his message. He cannot preach about 
prayer and himself be prayerless, nor can he talk of 
power and be powerless, nor can he speak of consecra- 
tion and Hve a selfish life, nor can he talk of the concern 
of Jesus and himself be unconcerned. Unless the private 
life and the public preaching strike in unison, the preacher 
is not a soul winner, nor is the Sunday-school teacher, 
nor the superintendent, nor is any Christian. 

Fourth: No minister can be a soul winner without he 
gives close attention to his pulpit life. This suggests 
the theme of the sermon which must always and ever be 
the gospel. It has not lost its power, whatever men may 
say to the contrary, and as a matter of fact, it is true 
that wherever men are really drawing crowds of people 
and holding them, their theme is the glorious gospel of 
the Son of God. Sensationalism may draw for a time, 



148 The Presbyterian Church 

but the gospel steadily wins and always holds. We boast 
a great deal in these days of our great men and noble 
women in America, philanthropists, statesmen, mission- 
aries, our honored fathers and mothers, but in so far 
as they are Christians and the most of them are, they 
have drawn their inspiration for holy living from the 
story of Jesus the Son of God; cradled in the manger, 
living at Nazareth, preaching in Galilee, suffering in 
Gethsemane, scourged in Jerusalem, dying upon the cross, 
buried in the tomb, rising with power, ascending up into 
heaven, seated in glory and coming again with majesty 
and power. Could there be a grander message than this, 
and that minister who delivers it fearlessly and yet ten- 
derly in the very spirit of Jesus himself, will be a soul 
winner. It has always been true, but in addition to this 
the message must be, 

First : Practical. I know that I speak for a great army 
of busy men and women in this world, when I say that 
these people have little time to listen to philosophical dis- 
cussions and mere intellectual discourses. Life is too 
short for this, and as a result of the experiences of the 
weak, they are too weary to give the time to listening 
to what will not help them in their living, and the ma- 
jority of them come to the church to hear the truth that 
will make them better and truer in every way; and more 
of the people of the world would join them in their wor- 
ship if they were sure that they would hear from the pul- 
pit the gospel which has ever transformed lives and 
strengthened character. 

Second: It must be personal. A distinguished New 
York pastor tells of preaching a sermon one day in which 
he said to his people: "every one in this church is either 
a channel or a barrier for spiritual power in his relation 
towards God." One prominent man returned to his 



In North Carolina. 149 

home, entered his library and determined to find out 
which he was, and learned that he was a barrier. 

Before he left the room he determined that from that 
time on he would be a channel. The next day he began 
to speak to his employees. The first was a Catholic, and 
he urged him to be a true Catholic. Among them came 
his private secretary, and he asked him if he had kept 
his promises to him and if he had been a good employer. 
Thinking that perhaps he was about to be discharged, the 
private secretary asked him what fault he had to find with 
him, when he said, "It is not that, but I am a Christian, 
and I am bound for heaven, and I should not like to go 
without asking you to go with me." Out from that one 
store thirteen men have been won for Christ by the 
testimony of this consecrated business man. The time 
has come when ministers have had given to them an 
opportunity to speak plainly and personally to their peo- 
ple and if they speak in the spirit of Christ the message 
will be received gladly, and many lives will be com- 
pletely changed. 

The Evangelistic Sermon. 

In a conference of ministers gathered not long ago to 
discuss the general subject of evangelistic work the ser- 
mon was naturally discussed. 

One minister said, "An evangelistic sermon is one that 
reaches out after a soul"; another said, "It is a sermon 
which has enough of the Gospel in it so that if one should 
hear the preacher but once he would know what he must 
do to be saved." Still another said, " It is a sermon which 
provokes a crisis in the hearer's life," which is rather the 
best definition, because it is at once apparent that men 
may be evangelistic and preach not only for the winning 
of souls, but for the upbuilding of character. An evange- 



150 The Presbyterian Church 

listic sermon is one which has a definite aim, and that 
aim is the winning of the lost to Christ, and then the 
building up in Christ of those who are won. It is a ser- 
mon which may be practically applied in our every-day 
living, and is by all means a sermon which impresses one 
with his need for Christ and the absolute sincerity in th«- 
desire of the preacher that he may be saved. 

There may be at least four distinct marks of an evange- 
listic sermon : 

First. It is dictated by the Holy Ghost. Since he knowa 
the hearts of men, inspired men to write the Word of 
God, and at the same time is fully acquainted with us as 
his instruments, it naturally follows that he can suggest 
the theme and its manner of treatment w^hich would be 
most effective in reaching the lost if we did but give him 
the chance to do so. 

The late George H. C. MacGregor told me that he came 
one night to his London pulpit with his sermon carefully 
prepared, for he was a thorough student, and suddenly 
became impressed with the fact that for some reason he 
ought to turn aside from his well-thought-out sermon and 
give an entirely different message, for which he was in 
his judgment not so well equipped. But he followed his 
leading, preaching his sermon not with great satisfaction 
to himself, and possibly with not such great delight to 
his people, but the next morning he found a letter on his 
table in which the writer said : "I was on my way to end 
my life last night and dropped into your church just to 
pass away the time. I do not remember your singing, 
nor the words you spoke, but the text you chose was my 
mother's favorite. It was her last message to me when I 
left home as a boy, and I could not get away from it last 
night. Instead of being a suicide to-day I have become a 
Christian." " From that day till this," said this sainted 



In North Carolina. 151 

preacher, " I have tried to deUver no message that was 
not clearly dictated both in the choice of the text and the 
development of the theme by the Holy Spirit of God." 

Second. The evangelistic sermon is one which is 
wrought out in prayer and preached in the power of 
prayer. There is a tendency on the part of the preacher 
when he is intellectually well versed in his message to 
depend upon his preparation, his power as an orator and 
his natural ability to move men, but in the evangelistic 
sermon, which is to lead men to Christ, not alone must 
these things move him, but also that strength which comes 
by prayer. It is only w^hen the sermon has been wrought 
out on our knees and is preached in the consciousness, 
that the one of whom we speak is just at our side, that 
there is power in it to persuade the lost. 

Third. An evangelistic sermon is one which is preached 
first of all to oneself. It is a good thing when the message 
is completed, not only to go over it on our knees, but to 
go over It for ourselves. The point that fails to move 
us we might as well cut out, for there is this sure test of 
the power of the sermon, it will as a rule move our hearers 
in the same proportion that it has moved ourselves. If 
it has helped us it will help others. Mr. Spurgeon used 
to say true preaching is artesian, it wells up from great 
depths. This is especially true of evangelistic preaching. 
Fourth. An evangelistic sermon is one w^hich is 
preached with the expectation of results. " I preached 
the Gospel/' said a minister to me the other day in a 
western city. '' I know it was the Gospel, and at the close 
of the sermon two women came to ask what they could 
do to be saved. I confess to my shame that I was sur- 
prised." 

Evangelistic preachers have always found it true that 
in proportion as they have expected results and preached 



152 The Presbyterian Church 

in the power of their expectation God has seemed to honor 
their effort and to inspire others with the same enthusiasm. 

Fifth. An evangelistic sermon is one which is well 
illustrated. There are many in the pulpit to-day who are 
afraid of illustrations. They ridicule the simple story- 
telling preacher, and in some instances they have a right 
to do so, but let us not forget that Jesus constantly told 
stories of the flowers at his feet, of the birds that flew 
above his head, of the w^oman that baked bread, of the 
farmer that sowed the seed, of the old father that waited 
for his boy. He never preached a sermon without an 
illustration, indeed without many of them, but the illus- 
tration must illustrate. 

One of our prominent ministers in this country in tell- 
ing of the visit of the celebrated Dr. Lorenz to this coun- 
try told of the little boy who was operated upon for the 
straightening of his foot. He said after he was out from 
under the power of the anaesthetic, " It will be a long time 
before my mother hears the last of this, doctor," and then 
he told the story also of a boy of his own acquaintance 
from a poor German family, whose foot was crooked and 
who was operated upon by a celebrated doctor. The 
operation was a success and then the minister under 
whose influence the work had been done went to the 
hospital to take the boy home. The plaster caste is taken 
away from the foot, and it is as perfect as the otlier. When 
his attention w^as called to the nurses in the hospital, to 
the equipment of the institution, to the fine windows in 
the building, to every suggestion the boy would reply, 
"But these things are nothing compared with the doctor. 
He is the greatest man I have ever known." And w^hen 
they reached the Missouri town and they stept off the 
train the old German mother was waiting to receive her 
child. She did not look at his hands, neither at his face, 



In North Carolina. 153 

but she fell on her knees and looked at his foot and then 
cried out with tears, " It is just like any other foot." As 
she took the boy in her arms sobbing over and over he 
kept saying to her, " Mother, you must know the doctor, 
you must know the doctor." Then the preacher turned 
upon his audience to say, "And yet there is no one of us 
but what Jesus Christ has done ten thousand times more 
than the doctor did for that boy and we have never spoken 
for him." 

This illustration is a sermon in itself. It was something 
in the every-day life of the preacher. There are hun- 
dreds of instances like it occurring in the year. Ability to 
see these things and to apply them in our teaching and 
preaching w^ould increase our effectiveness almost a hun- 
dredfold. 



THE EVANGELISTIC CHURCH. 

There is a general inquiry to-day in all parts of the 
church both on the part of ministers and laymen concern- 
ing the evangelistic church. It is possibly true also that 
there is in many quarters of the church a misconception 
as to what the spirit and the work of such a church should 
be. The commission given by the great head of the 
church is clearly set forth in the New Testament Scrip- 
tures — Matthew xxviii. 16-20; Mark xvi. 15-20; Luke 
xxiv. 46-49; Acts ii. 1-4. 

From all of which we learn : . 

First. That God expects us to evangelize the unsaved 
and the unchurched masses. If a church is not evange- 
listic, it will soon cease to be evangelical. 

Second. That God equips us to evangelize. He has left 
undone no part of his w^ork. It is no question as to our 
own ability or fitness, but altogether a question as to his 



154 The Presbyterian Church 

filling us with that power which enables us to do his will, 
and this he has pledged himself in his word to do. 

Third. If he expects and equips, then he will one day 
require at our hands an accounting for the field we might 
have occupied and the power we might have possessed. 

I. — The Church. 

What is the church? Whatever other definition may 
be given this at least is correct so far as our conception of 
the evangelistic church is concerned: 

It is the body of believers united by faith to Christ, 
who is the living head. This at once suggests a line of 
truth regarding the conduct of the body. 

There used to be a man in Washington who as he 
walked the streets always attracted the attention of 
passers-by to himself. 

First. Because of his remarkable head, which they said 
was more like the head of Daniel Webster than any other 
since his day. And, secondly, because of his deformed 
body. The first was a look of admiration, the second one 
of pity, and is this not a truth for us ? Our head is per- 
fect ; when he was here among men they said, " Never 
man spake like this man." Now that he is exalted at the 
right hand of God he is the chiefest among ten thousand 
and the one altogether lovely. But concerning the body, 
in some places at least we are privileged to say that it 
poorly represents him and illy illustrates his spirit. If he 
is the head and the church is the body then it naturally 
follows that we are expected to do his will, and at once 
the question is asked, ''But may we know his will"? "Cer- 
tainly we may know it, by studying carefully his instruc- 
tions to his disciples." In the early days he said, as he 
sent them forth, 'T will make you fishers of men," and as 
he sent out the seventy it was to preach and to teach. In 



In North Carolina. 155 

his parables and his sermons the same spirit is plainly 
manifest, and since he is the unchanging Christ, his will 
of other days is his will for to-day. In the Epistle to the 
Hebrews we read: "J^sus Christ the same yesterday, to- 
day and forever," but in the Revision there is a change 
made in the translation and we read: "J^sus Christ the 
same yesterday, to-day, yea and forever." There is the 
addition of the word "yea." Some one has suggested that 
the author of the Epistle is writing concerning the Jesus 
of yesterday and to-day being the same, when suddenly, as 
it were, the very angels in the skies break forth, '' Yea 
and forever." He is the same in heaven in his purpose 
and desires as when he walked among men and commis- 
sioned them to go out and seek the lost until they were 
found. 

There are some things which the evangelistic church is 
not. 

First. It is not of necessity a church which holds extra 
services, although these are as a rule advisable, for it is 
by the extraordinary service that the attention of some is 
called to Christ who would not otherwise think of him 
in their busy lives, yet one of the strongest churches in 
America never passes a communion without a large acces- 
sion. Recently one hundred and sixty-six came to Christ 
at one communion service, and it is the exception rather 
than the rule that extra services are held. The sainted 
Andrew Bonar, it is said, rarely held an extra service, and 
never passed a communion without the coming of many 
into the fold. 

Second. It is not of necessity a church of constant 
accessions. If the seed is faithfully sown and there is an 
earnest evangelistic purpose the Lord of the harvest wdl 
care for the result. For a time they may be meagre, but 



156 The Presbyterian Church 

God's statement is true, " His word shall not return unto 
him void." 

Third. It is not of necessity a church having important 
accessions, for as men count the work frequently it is a 
failure, so few come to him ; as God views it it is the most 
pronounced success. When the old Scotch minister said, 
no one ti"ad joined his church for a long period of time 
except Bobbie i\Iof¥att, he little knew, as Joseph Parker 
once said, that when he added Robert Mofifatt to the 
church he practically added a continent to the Kingdom 
of God. It is the spirit of the church that counts, and 
if underlying every public service, whether it be the 
preaching on Sunday, or the midweek prayer service, the 
gathering of the elders or the meeting of the Sunday- 
school teachers, there is plainly manifest a real concern 
for the lost. With such conditions prevailing we have an 
evangelistic church. 

II. — The Evangelistic. 

First. The evangelistic church is one, the spirit of which 
breathes a welcome to every one who crosses its threshold, 
and whether it be the minister's sermon, the music of the 
choir, the grace with which the ushering is accomplished, 
the welcome given to the stranger, the spirit is all the 
spirit of Christ, in which lost men are made to feel their 
need of him and are impressed with the thought that there 
is hope for every one away from him. 

Second. The evangelistic church is one willing to use 
any method, whatever that method may be, so long as it 
may have the approval of the Great Head of the Church 
and may detract nothing from his honor and glory and 
not in any way grieve the Holy Spirit of God. Since the 
shepherd sought his sheep until he found it, and the 



In North Carolina. 157 

woman her piece of money until she recovered it, and the 
father waited for his boy until he was home once more, 
so let us change our methods if need be until we impress 
the lost with the fact that we long for them to know him 
who died that they might live. He said he would make 
us fishers of men. 

Third. The evangelistic church is a church of prayer. 
It is said that when Mr. Moody and Mr. Sankey went as 
strangers across the sea their first meeting in the morning 
was a discouragement, and in the evening it was a gra- 
cious manifestation of God's power, and some time after- 
wards it was found that one of the members of that 
church had read a little notice in a paper concerning the 
work of the unknown evangelists. Moody and Sankey, in 
America, and had prayed God to send them to her land and 
to her ohurch. This little slip of paper she had kept under 
her pillow and when she knew that the evangehsts had 
come, she burst into tears and cried : ''Now, Lord, lettest 
thou thine servant depart, for mine eyes have seen thy 
salvation." There never has been a revival in history that 
has not been born in prayer. There never has been an 
evangelistic church since the church was dedicated that 
was not nurtured by prayer. The time has come to call 
the followers of Christ to their knees. It would seem 
almost as if God's set time to favor Zion is now here. 

Fourth. The evangelistic church is one in which pastor 
and church are practically of one mind. Since Jesus him- 
self couldi do no mighty works because of their unbelief, 
how can a pastor to-day accomplish very much if he is 
opposed by his church or hindered by indifiference. They 
must both together have one mind, and that the mind of 
him who ever sought the lost, then there is a mighty force 
brought to play upon the conscience and life of the un- 
saved which cannot possibly be gainsaid. 



158 The Presbyterian Church 

III. — A Final Word. 

First. The evangelistic church is an organized church. 
I am well aware that we may press the question of organi- 
zation too far, but at the same time I remember that our 
God is a God of order, and that a perfect piece of machin- 
ery may be so yielded to him as that we would lose all 
thought of the machinery and stand amazed at the exhi- 
bition of power. 

(a) The church officers must be enlisted in this special 
service for Christ. Would it not be possible for the pastor 
to meet his officers before he preached, and that they then 
pray for the blessing of God upon his sermon ? Would it 
not be feasible for pastor and church officers to have at 
least one meeting a month when only prayer should be 
offered for God's guidance of the church? In some 
churches this plan has been adopted, and now^here has it 
been known to fail. 

(b) The men of the church must be enlisted. Whatever 
may be said to the contrary this is the testimony of 
workers who have been successful in reaching men foi 
Christ, the work must be done through men. I am not 
unmindful of the power of a mother's prayer, of a wife's 
example, but never until the rnen ar.e enlisted, banded 
together, thoroughly consecrated and filled with the Holy 
Ghost may we expect the ingathering from their ranks. 

(c) The sympathies of the young people should be en- 
listed. Is it not a practical thing to suggest that for at 
least three months of time the young people of our 
churches should seek to win their comrades and com- 
panions for Christ? This could be done in many cases if 
the pastor and the church officers would show their sym- 
pathy by their presence, would counsel the young people 
so fhat they might be saved from making grievous mis- 
takes. The young people of our churches might be com- 



In North Carolina. 159 

pletely transformed if this mission were held up before 
them. 

(d) The Sunday-school should be counted an evange- 
lizing agency. Since it is true that the majority of the 
people coming into the church come from the ranks of the 
Sunday-school scholars, we have an illustration which to 
say the least is forceful, but we have only begun our work 
in this direction. The majority of people in the church 
to-day come to Christ before they are twenty years of 
age, and if we miss the organization of our Sunday- 
schools along this line we are guilty at least of a mistake 
for which we will one day be called to an account. Could 
there not be arranged conferences with the superintend- 
ents and the teachers, the older scholars in the school, 
when prayer would be offered for the unsaved and an 
effort be made to lead them to Christ. What we need, 
however, is to be definite in our work. 

(e) The church itself should be thoroughly organized. 
Is there any better suggestion to be made than that con- 
cerning the circle of prayer? 

How TO Form a Prayer Circle. 

1. Dedicate yourself to God for this service of inter- 
cession. 

2. Ask him for the anointing of the Holy Spirit, that 
you may be "a vessel unto honor^ sanctified and meet for 
the Master's use, and prepared unto 'this' work." 

3. Ask that you may be guided as to whom you should 
invite to join the circle of prayer. 

4. In prayer seek for guidance as to all details of indi- 
vidual or collective prayer, such as times of prayer or 
meeting together and subjects. 

5. Watch for answers, and any indications of answers, 
to the prayers offered ; but do not be discouraged if defi- 



i6o The Presbyterian Church 

nite answers be delayed. Intercessory prayer often re- 
quires the exercise of much faith and patience. 

Why should it not be possible for the pastor of the 
church to call upon his members to unite with him in a 
prayer circle, and perhaps have numerous circles in his 
congregation, which should meet from time to time with 
some degree of regularity ? In many parts of our country 
this is already done and some of our most successful 
pastors are following this line of work. 

Second. The evangelistic church is a spiritual church, 
and that church may be counted spiritual in which the 
Holy Ghost has his rightful place. If we should make it 
a rule in our churdhes to devise no plans, adopt no 
methods without these things were all submitted to God, 
and we were conscious of his approval a new day would 
dawn upon us. That church is spiritual in which the 
minister as well as a goodly number of the church people 
are wholly surrendered to Christ. When (he has the right 
of way in our lives blessing will surely follow and the 
unsaved in large numbers will be won to him. 

The Church Service. 

There is much criticism to-day concerning the Church, 
which is positively unjust. It is quite useless to say that 
there are no flaws in the present organization as men can 
see it, but it is also equally true that in the best ordered 
homes, in those households where there is the greatest 
amount of peace and comfort, there are elements of weak- 
ness. One could break up his home in less than three 
months if he should parade the flaws of his home life 
before all who would listen to him. It is both unjust to 
the Church and disloyal to Christ for one to keep con- 
stantly harping upon the weakness of our church life, 



In North Carolina. i6i 

when there is so much on the other side to arouse en- 
thusiasm and to provoke the most generous affection, 
and yet without having the least spirit of harsh criticism, 
it is, alas, also true that concerning the services of our 
Church, the following may be justly stated: 

First : The service is too formal. Formality is gen- 
erally observed at the expense of spiritual power and 
life. In very many of our churches from one year's end 
to the other, there is no variation of the service. An 
invocation, frequently singing by a choir which cannot 
be understood, three hymns by the congregation sung in 
a half-hearted manner in many of our churches, two 
prayers by the minister, one short and the other long, 
a sermon of varying length, a benediction, and the ser- 
vice is over. It is inconceivable that the man of the 
world who cares nothing for the sentiment of the ser- 
vice and who feels no special obligation to attend church, 
should be interested by that which he knows will be the 
same whether he attends the service on the Atlantic 
Coast, on the Pacific, in the northern portion of our coun- 
try or in the extreme south. It would be far from me 
to wish too great an informality in the worship of God 
and the conduct of the services of his sanctuary, but I 
am quite sure that the time is upon us when if we would 
attract attention to him who is able to save to the utter- 
most, we must do the unusual thing. 

One of our great Scotch preachers has said that the 
disposition which some of us have to pray regularly three 
times a day, is well enough in itself, but may not ac- 
complish its purpose, for the devil knows concerning our 
purpose, and he says that man will pray at morning, at 
noon and at night, and whenever he prays I will be there 
to attract his attention to other things, and his prayer will 
be lifeless and indifferent. Could he not say the same 



i62 The Presbyterian Church 

thing concerning some of the services of our churches? 
If he knows anything at all, he must know just what we 
are going to do, for we know this ourselves. 

John Robertson, the Scotch preacher, some little time 
ago, preached a sermon on that text found in i Peter ii. 7 : 
"Unto you therefore which believe he is precious," and 
he said if the verse should be rightly read it would be 
like this, "Unto you therefore \vhich believe," then there 
is a break in the manuscript, or a pause, and the word, 
"Precious," might be translated "preciousness," or to 
change it again, it might be translated ''Hallelujah," and 
his interpretation was that Peter is writing along in his 
message and finds himself saying, "Unto you therefore 
which believe," and suddenly there came to him a vision 
of the one who had chosen him to be his follower and 
sent him forth to preach, had forgiven him his wander- 
ings, and sent a special messenger after his resurrection, 
and he is so full of emotion that suddenly he breaks forth 
with an exclamation of, "preciousness or hallelujah." 
Such a break as this in the service of an ordinary church 
w^ould be counted a most extraordinary thing, but I can 
conceive that there might come into a church a great in- 
fusion of new life if there should be a disposition on 
the part of those who preach and teach to yield them- 
selves more perfectly to him who witnesses to Christ and 
allow him to have his way with us and through us, in- 
stead of our own will concerning that which might be 
proper in our judgment. 

Again, may it not be said that the Church is too cold. 
There are certain things which may cause this condition. 
Following Christ afar off would make it possible; com- 
ing in touch with the world would produce it as an in- 
evitable result ; even indifference would not be without 
influence in the production of such a state of affairs. I 



In North Carolina. 163 

can think of no one thing that would so bring new Ufe to 
the Church, warmth to the preacher and a glow of en- 
thusiasm to every department of service as the cuUi- 
vation of the spirit of evangehsm, or in other words, a 
devotion of the membership of the Church to the winning 
of souls to Christ. 

Mr. Spurgeon used to tell of a census taker who went 
about the city of London, particularly in his part of the 
great city, to secure such information as might be valu- 
able to his workers. He found an old couple living in 
an attractive-looking house, everything outside was neat 
and inside it was almost perfect. The old people were 
sitting on either side of a fire-place, so far as the visitor 
could see, in perfect comfort, and wdien the questions had 
been answered he said to them, 'T should think you would 
be very happy. You are away from the turmoil of life, 
you have fought your battles and won your victories, and 
you are here now in the evening time of your existence 
together, with naught to disturb you or make you afraid," 
and the old lady made response, saying: ''Well, we are 
not happy; we used to be, when we heard the sounds of 
children's voices about the house, but now we are here 
alone, and we have neither chick nor child about us. We 
sit here all the day long, my husband and I : he looks at 
me and I look at him, until we almost grow sick of the 
sight of each other. Oh," she said, "if we could only 
hear the children again we would have joy." .This is 
a picture of many a church with the minister preaching to 
the people and the people simply looking at him, until 
sometimes he feels that he would welcome anything if 
only the church would be aroused, the formality driven 
away and the coldness depart. I know of nothing that 
would cause this result to be so quickly apparent as to 



164 The Presbyterian Church 

hear the sound of the voices of those who are new-born 
babes in Christ Jesus. 

A soul winning church is never a church spiritually 
cold. The two positions are positively irreconcilable. 

May it not also be true that the Church is too indefinite 
in its work. Wherever there is a successful church to- 
day, without exception that church wall be found to be 
carrying on a definite work, both at home and abroad. 
The minister plans his w^ork and w^orks his plan. If he 
preaches a series of sermons, it is in order that some 
result may be accomplished not only in the present, but 
in the future; if he has a social gathering, it is in order 
that through this gathering he may accomplish some other 
purpose ; if he makes pastoral calls, it is because he earn- 
estly hopes to bring his influence to bear upon his people 
to lead them to take some new position for aggressive 
work for Christ. If business men must plan their busi- 
ness, and they must, then why should not the leaders of 
the Church plan their work, which is more important 
than any business in the w^orld to-day, for the King's 
business not only requires haste, but requires ingenuity 
and careful planning. Why would it not be possible at 
the beginning of the church year for the minister and his 
officers to definitely decide that every aim and every 
effort throughout the year should be to accomplish cer- 
tain definite spiritual results, and for this they w^ould 
plan and pray and work. 

Nothing is so inspiring as the music of the church ser- 
vice, and nothing can be more distressing. It is quite 
as inconsistent to have an unconverted choir as to have 
an unconverted minister, for both lead in the worship of 
God. It is just as reasonable for a minister to preach 
in an unknown tongue as for a choir to sing after this 
fashion, and it is almost the exception rather than the 



In North Carolina. 165 

rule to understand many of the choirs of our important 
churches. Sometimes the music fails because the words 
and the music clash; sometimes it fails because the sub- 
ject of the hymn is utterly foreign to the main part of 
the service, and frequently it fails because we attach 
too little importance to it as an element in reaching and 
influencing the lives of the people. It is quite true that 
the theology of very many people is obtained from the 
hymns they sing. Little children singing ''Alas and did 
my Saviour bleed," catch an idea of the atonement ; when 
they sing, "J^sus paid it all," they begin to have some 
conception of justification, and under the influence of, 
''Nearer my God to thee," they learn great lessons of 
fellowship with Christ. It is said that one of the most 
attractive features of Mr. Spurgeon's service was the 
singing of his great congregation, when no choir took the 
place of the singing of the people, and when even an 
organ was dispensed with in order that the people might 
stand together and praise God, as they did in a most 
wonderful way, and yet what could be better than the 
choir of singers, consecrated to Christ, enthusiastic in 
their singing, because they realized that next to the min- 
ister they have to do with the reaching of the people, 
and in many cases beyond the minister, they have a 
power over the unsaved. 

"It is impossible to hold the unconverted masses with- 
out interesting them. In gaining this purpose, the power 
of song has, in France, proved most effective. The 
Moody and Sankey songs are translated and sung quite 
as much in Paris as in New York. The wanderers on 
fhe street at night can be thus attracted. These songs are 
open to criticism on grounds of reverence and truthful- 
ness, as well as of aesthetics. But for their purpose of 



i66 The Presbyterian Church 

drawing and holding the masses, they are unequalled. 
Scores of people will come off the street to sing 

" The half was never told,' 

who would turn away from the most eloquent sermon."^ 

What power there could be for good if frequently in 
the Sunday evening services at least sweet Gospel hymns 
should be announced, the whole congregation asked to 
sing, occasionally a solo sung by one who had prayed 
over the singing as the pastor ought to pray over his 
preaching. If the preaching of the Church to-day needs 
to be turned into evangelistic channels, there is far great- 
er necessity for insisting that the singing should be more 
evangelistic. 

Mr. Moody was a shrewd leader of men, and there 
were few men who ever went beyond him in exalting the 
power of the singing of a hymn in which there was to 
be found the spirit of the Gospel. The preaching is, of 
course, the important part of the entire service, for by the 
foolishness of preaching God has ordained ^that men 
should come to know Christ and to understand his beau- 
ty, but there are certain points which must be emphasized 
in connection with the preaching which is to be evangel- 
istic in its purpose. 

First: The truth preached must be experienced. No 
man can talk with any success about prayer and be 
prayerless, about consecration and withhold his gift from 
the altar, about love for souls and himself be indifferent 
to lost men. 

"No one preaches the truth with power until he has 
had a deep personal experience of its power. The truths 
which were so mighty on the lips of Luther and Wesley 

^ "The working church." 



In North Carolina. 167 

and Finney and Moody had first been mighty in their 
own hearts. Suppose we ministers begin with ourselves, 
and make sure that we are ready for disinterested service ; 
make it quite sure that we ourselves have been to Gol- 
gotha, and have there been crucified, so that we are dead, 
and the life in us is the hfe of Christ; make it quite sure 
that our own hearts are aglow with the love that over- 
flows to God and man. Then we may expect that these 
neglected truths of Jesus will be preached to the churches 
with mighty power until church membership really stands 
for Christian service, Christian sacrifice and Christian 
love. And then this Gospel of God will indeed be the 
power of God unto salvation to the multitudes to whom 
he is now unreal. 

"When God becomes real to men, the guilt of sin be- 
comes real ; and, as we have seen, God is actualized when 
he is interpreted in the terms of present-day truth and in 
the every-day life of living epistles." 

Second : Christ must be preached in all his fullness. It 
will not do to ignore any part of the scheme of redemp- 
tion. One might just as truly err in being over-zealous in 
what is properly called evangelistic services, as being 
indifferent on the other side to the necessity of preaching 
what we call the old, old story of Jesus and his love. 
Truth is always pow^erful if it is preached in all of its 
fullness. 

" The rapid growth of 'Christian Science,' so-called, is 
a reaction from a Christianity which ignores the physi- 
cal, and therefore does not recognize the interrelation of 
soul and body; precisely as Unitarianism was a reaction 
from an orthodoxy which practically ignored the humanity 
of our Lord ; and reactions are naturally one-sided and 
extreme. The remedy for them is to preach the well- 
rounded truth. We are slowly learning by costly exper- 



i68 The Presbyterian Church 

ience that no great Scriptural truth can be safely neg- 
lected ; sooner or later it appears in caricature."^ 

Yet there is this to be said, and it must be said with 
emphasis, that for one who is in sin and therefore abso- 
lutely lost there is no story whidh can keep and lift and 
save but the story of the crucified one. 

Dr. Jowett, of Birmingham, England, tells the story of 
the late Dr. Berry which illustrates my point. He returned 
from his service one day to find a child waiting at his 
door who asked him if he would not come at once and 
help to get her mother in. He did not understand iher re- 
quest, thinking possibly she was in the cold and had been 
turned out of her home, but at last in response to her 
earnest entreaties he went and found the mother dying. 
He did what he could to help her, but seemed utterly 
powerless. He told the story of the Prodigal Son, but she 
seemed uninterested. He brought to her attention the 
story of the reclaiming of fallen women and Christ bless- 
ing the little children, that she might know that there was 
no one so weak and no one so sinful as to be beyond the 
power of his love, and she was still unmoved, and at last 
he said to his friend, ^he drew out of me bit by bit the 
story of Jesus born in Bethlehem, living In Nazareth, 
preaching in Galilee, suffering in Jerusalem, dying on the 
cross, rising from the dead and' ascending into glory, and^ 
as I told her the story her eyes filled with tears and her 
lips trembled and then there came a look of ineffable peace 
and joy, and she passed away, and said Dr. Berry to his 
friend, "I believe I got her In." 

This Is the only story for a lost and ruined race, and we 
cannot be evangelistic if we neglect it, nor can we expect 
God to bless us in the winning of souls. 

1 "The next great awakening." 



In North Carolina. 169 

Third. Preaching, to be evangelistic, must be done with 
the confident expectation of results. .The unsaved people 
in our congregation are quick to detect our own anticipa- 
tion of failure ; they are equally sensitive to our confident 
belief that what we say is to have weight with them and 
may be used of God to save their souls. 

Over in the almost midnight darkness of Africa toiled 
Robert and Mary Moffatt ; for ten years they labored on 
without a single convert. They were four hundred miles 
beyond the place of civilization. They had only about 
them the most degraded savages, yet they never for a 
moment faltered and never for a single moment did they 
have any other thought than this, that they were sure to 
be successful. A letter was received from a friend asking 
if there was anything of use w^hich could be sent by their 
minister. " The significant answer of Mary Mof¥att was, 
'Send us a communion service. We shall want it some 
day.' It came three years later, the day before the first 
converts were baptized." 

With such a spirit as this in the preaching, with 
supreme confidence in God and in his Word, w4tli absolute 
certainty that if Christ be preached faithfully God's Word 
cannot return unto him void, there must be increased effi- 
ciency in our church services and great numbers of people 
brought to Christ. Yet if the church of Christ could only 
be aroused to put into practice his preaching and teaching 
in this present day, and other days, how men would be 
helped, how souls would be won and how the very wilder- 
ness would blossom as a rose. 

" Let us suppose a church somewhere, whose members 
have such an enthusiasm for humanity that when they lie 
awake nights they are planning not how to make money, 
but how to make men. Their supreme desire is to help 
the world in general and their own community in particu- 



170 The Presbyterian Church 

lar. They are striving daily to remove every moral and 
physical evil ; tr}ang to give every child who comes into 
the world the best possible chance ; longing and working 
and praying and spending themselves and their substance 
to save men from sin and ignorance and suffering! Let 
us suppose the whole church is co-operating to this end. 
What a transformation such a church would work in any 
community ! How it would 'reach the masses' ! How it 
would grow ! How it would be talked about and written 
up! Men would make pilgrimages to study its workings 
and its success. Yet such a church ought not to be in the 
least degree peculiar."^ And such a church as this is 
possible in every community in the world if only the Word 
of God is received as authentic, if only Christ is believed 
on and his teachings practiced. That such a church is not 
to be seen to-day in many of our cities and towns is to our 
reproach. 

1 "The next great awakening." 




REV. S. L. MORRIS, D. D. 



HOME MISSIONS, THE SUPREME 
NEED OF THE HOUR. 

Rev. S. L. Morris, D. D., Secretary. 

The history of the church is a history of missions. Its 
ratio of progress has always been measured by its mis- 
sionary activity. The decline of the missionary spirit is 
the signal for stagnation. It is the glory of the Presby- 
terian church that it is a missionary organization, whose 
purpose aims at nothing short of the conquest of the 
world for Christ; and this task will be accomplished 
largely by impressing the individual with his individual 
responsibility as a member of a missionary organization. 
Loyalty to Christ can be maintained only by the accept- 
ance of Christ's authority as the head of the church and 
obedience to Christ's marching orders — ''Go ye into all 
the world and preach the Gospel to every creature." Dis- 
obedience is rebellion ; and indifference is the very es- 
sence of disobedience. 

The division of the subject into Home and Foreign 
Missions is a human distinction, which may be justified 
by the necessities of administration and the distribution 
of the work, but is not strictly scriptural. In Christ's 
analysis of the subject one shades off gradually into the 
other ; and Foreign Missions is simply an extension of the 
work to its farthest Hmits. " Ye shall be witnesses unto 
me both in Jerusalem and in all Judea, and in Samaria, 
and unto the uttermost part of the earth." "J^^^^^alem 
and all Judea," are unquestionably what we denominate 
Home Missions; and ''The uttermost part of the earth" 



172 The Presbyterian Church 

certainly contemplates Foreign Missions ; whilst " Sa- 
maria" is the connecting link between them, partaking 
partly of the character of each. " Samaria" corresponds 
to the foreigners in our land — Alexicans in Texas, Indians 
of Oklahoma and "the regions beyond" our organized 
Presbyteries. It is Foreign Missions at home! Many 
professing Christians "do not believe in Foreign Mis- 
sions/' but that is no evidence that they will support the 
work of the church in the home field. It amounts to 
nothing more than an excuse to shirk the duty of con- 
tributing to Foreign Missions. Equally inconsistent are 
the Christians who rave over the Africans on the banks 
of the Congo, and are absolutely indifferent to the nine 
millions of Africans at their own door. The highest type 
of Christians are they who estimate the value of a lost 
soul in terms of the Gospel and in the mathematics of 
heaven, regarding the most degraded soul in heathendom 
of equal worth with the most refined in civilization, and 
considering the most cultured unsaved soul in Christen- 
dom as truly lost as the meanest in Africa or China. 

Christ combined in his own person both Home and 
Foreign Missions. In his divinity as the Son of God, 
he was a foreign missionary, a volunteer from heaven to 
the heathen of earth. In his humanity, as the son of man, 
he was a home missionary solely, who never went beyond 
his native Palestine. In his command he laid the em- 
phasis first on Home Missions, " Beginning at Jerusalem," 
but that emphasis reaches "unto the uttermost part of the 
earth." The disciples in carrying out the instructions of 
the Master went first "to the lost sheep of the house of 
Israel," but they inaugurated at the same time the scheme 
of world-wide evangelism. In one sense, Paul was the 
grandest of all Foreign Missionaries who turned from 
Israel to preach Christ to the Gentiles ; and yet, in another 



In North Carolina. 173 

sense he was as truly a home missionary, for he was a 
citizen of the Roman Empire and never left its confines. 
Home Missions are always a means tow^ard an end. Its 
motto is "Save America to save the world." 

I. Home Missions are the basis of all denominational 
growth. A church may do a magnificent work for For- 
eign Missions, and yet stand still, w^hilst other denomina- 
tions are growing rapidly on every side, as is the case of 
the Moravian Church. If this noble church had carriea 
on the work at home and abroad pari passu, how much 
sooner it would have reached ''unto the uttermost part 
of the earth." If the same zeal for Foreign Missions had 
characterized its efforts to expand at home, it would 
to-day number doubtless more than a million communi- 
cants. If its small membership is winning the admiration 
of the world, what magnificent results would have blessed 
the efforts of a million ! The denominations to-day which 
lead all others in the number of their communicants in the 
United States are those who are conspicuous in their zeal 
for Home Missions. There is no surer method of propa- 
gating the faith of a church and no more rapid means of 
advancing into every nook and corner of the country than 
by Home Missions. If as a church we are to expand with 
the expansion and development of this great country; 
if we are to reach the millions yet unborn ; if we are to 
influence by our religious life and thought the destiny of 
our cosmopolitan populations ; if we are to multiply our- 
selves a hundred or a thousand fold in the coming cen- 
turies, we must begin at once by means of Home Missions 
to sow the seed "beside all waters." In the early days of 
Christianity it was a proverb, "The blood of the martyrs 
is the seed of the church." It is as true to-day, that the 
propagation of the faith costs the very life blood of the 
church. It means life-long martyrdom in hardships, suf- 



174 The Presbyterian Church 

fering, toil and self-sacrifice on tne part of our humble 
unappreciated home missionaries, who "have borne the 
burden and heat of the day," and prepared the way for 
our city pastors, who reap harvests upon which they "be- 
stowed no labor," illustrating the saying of Christ, "Other 
men labored and ye are entered into their labors." As 
others prepared the way for us, so we should lay founda- 
tions for future generations in a great wide-spread Home 
Mission campaign, which will mean the multiplication of 
our religious forces in an ever-increasing geometrical pro- 
gression to parallel the marvellous progress of this most 
strenuous of nations. 

2. Home Missions are the supreme need of the hour, 
if we are to reach the myriads who are perishing in our 
boasted Christian country. It is easy enough to soothe 
our conscience with the thought that in this land of Gospel 
privileges any man can hear the message oT salvation 
who will. But does that end our responsibility? Is it 
enough to ring the church bell and announce in the daily 
papers, '' Seats free and all cordially invited" ? Does the 
responsibility of bringing m.en to Christ terminate with 
their opportunities to attend service and our invitations 
to church? Is there any greater obligation to go ''into 
all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature" 
than to go out "into the highways and hedges and compel 
them to come in"? Can the great city church feel that it 
has met its obligation to Christ and lost souls by erecting 
its handsome church edifice for the enjoyment of its own 
religious privileges, and sending its representative to the 
foreign field, whilst multitudes are perishing almost 
within the sound of its church bells ? Are we prepared to 
answer the question of Jehovah, " Where is thy brother?" 
by denying our responsibility, and in indifference raising 
the indignant challenge, "Am I my brother's keeper"? 



In North Carolina. 175 

Who are these lost in our Christian land, for whom we 
have any kind of responsibihty however vague and in- 
definite? Take but the merest glance at the multitudes 
in a brief survey of the field : 

It has been estimated that, leaving out of the calculation 
the membership of the various branches of the church and 
the children of immature years, there are at least forty- 
nine millions of unsaved souls in our very midst. It ex- 
ceeds in num'ber the entire Empire of Japan; and they 
are as truly lost as the most degraded of the dark con- 
tinent. Are Home Missions of secondary importance, 
considering that there is no other means of saving these 
millions who are our own kith and kin ? Already the tide 
of immigration rolling in upon our shores has passed the 
million limit. The province of God is bringing more than 
a million heathen annually into our very midst and making 
us wrestle with the foreign mission problem at home. 
Far down in the bowels of the earth are the miners who 
toil for our comfort, whilst their neglected children huddle 
together in wretched villages. By day and by night the 
mill people are chained to the looms of our factories, till 
they themselves are but part of the machinery itself, 
which enormously increases the wealth of the church, 
that passes them by in the distribution of the bread of 
life. Stranded among the mountains are more than three 
millions of people who are descendants of the Scotch-Irish 
practically without the Gospel, or having only a carica- 
ture of it. Exceeding even them in number are the 
densely populated slums of our great cities, where chil- 
dren grow up in as dense ignorance of the Gospel as if 
born in Thibet or the Soudan. Add to this the great 
West, where the tides of population roll in their floods of 
peoples of every conceivable character. Professing Chris- 
tians, once active in church service, leaving their Chris- 



176 The Presbyterian Church 

tian obligation behind them, and young men free from 
the restraints of the home Hfe, mingle together, controlled 
largely by the passion for money-getting, the flame being 
fanned by the business opportunities of a rapidly de- 
veloping country. Mothers of the East turn their aching 
hearts towards the West, asking themselves the question, 
which they fear to answer, " Where is my wandering boy 
to-night?" Is there any other method of reaching our 
sons and daughters who have left forever the parental 
roof for contact and struggle with the world's evil forces, 
than by lifting into its appropriate place the neglected 
cause of Home Missions, till we compel its consideration 
by the church as the supreme need of the hour ? 

3. The necessity of a new estimation and emphasis of 
Home Missions arises from the Industrial Awakening of 
the South, the marvel of the age. Buildings are going 
up everywhere in all of our cities, and yet the demand 
is greater than the supply. In many sections of the Pied- 
mont Belt the traveller rides hundreds of miles and is not 
out of sight of the smoke of a factory till another comes 
to view. Additional trains are added on all of our rail- 
roads, and yet they are so crowded as to be uncomfort- 
able. Railroads cannot haul the freight. Manufacturers 
have sold far in advance of the supply, and orders must 
be placed months ahead to be filled. Demand for labor is 
the cry everywhere. Several States have agents in 
Europe offering a premium for immigrants. 

The following items are gathered at random from 
Herbert A. Smith, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture: "About one-seventh of the mineral produc- 
tion of the entire country comes from the Southern States. 
Of bituminous coal, the most valuable mineral, the South 
produces one-fourth; and of iron, about one-ninth. Its 
coal resources amount to nearly $600,000,000,000 tons. 



In North Carolina. 177 

or more than one-fourth of our estimated coal reserve. 
The showing in iron ore reserves is quite as good ; a safe 
minimum is over 3,000,000,000 tons, or nearly one-third 
of the nation's total. On a basis of value of product, the 
South furnishes more than two-sevenths of our oil, and 
more than one-sixth of our gas. The total value of the 
iron output in 1905 was not quite $7,000,000. It seems 
altogether safe to say that the South is now deriving 
$150,000,000 a year gross from its mines and quarries." 

The total estimated value of timber trees in board feet 
is $700,000,000,000. Farm products, $941,599,856; ani- 
mal products, $361,495,455. The value of farm property 
in Texas alone amounts to more than $1,000,000,000. The 
cotton crop of the South has suddenly doubled itself in 
value, increasing from $300,000,000 a year to $600,000,- 
000; whilst the entire value of the cotton crop — cotton- 
seed oil and kindred products — amounts to $1,000,000,- 
000. The cabbage and lettuce crops of South Carolina 
bring in larger sums than the entire revenue of the State 
before the war. Railroad mileage has increased from 
$44,087 in 1890 to $67,129 in 1905 alone in the Southern 
States. 

Clarence Hamilton Poe, in the " World's Work" for 
June says : " The last fifty years have seen the making of 
a dozen new commonwealths beyond the Mississippi ; the 
next fifty years will see the remaking of a dozen old 
commonwealths below Mason and Dixon's line. From 
1900 to 1950 the South will be the land of opportunity. 
As our epic of the nineteenth century was "Winning the 
West," so our epic of the twentieth century will be the 
"Development of the South." 

Taking, then. North Carolina as an illustration, he gives 
some startling figures — "In population North Carolina 
was sixteenth in rank among the States in 1890, fifteenth 



178 The Presbyterian Church 

in 1900; twenty-third in rank as an agricultural State 
in 1890, it was twentieth in 1900; ranking thirty-first in 
manufacturing in 1890, in 1900 it stood twenty-eighth. 
For net gain of rank in population, agriculture and manu- 
factures it was equalled by no old State east or west of the 
Mississippi, and only the newest of the new States and 
Territories of the West — Oklahoma and Montana, draw- 
ing a sudden stream of men and means from all other 
sections — kept the same pace 

" In the last five years the people of the State have put 
more money into industrial establishments than they had 
accumulated in them for the two hundred years preceding. 
Every time the moon changes, they now add as much to 
their property values as they had averaged per year prior 
to 1900. . . . 

" No longer content with merely supplying the wants 
of our own people, North Carolina's cotton trade with 
China is now so extensive that America's diplomatic 
relations with the Orient are of interest to the entire State. 
North Carolina's tobaccos are advertised on the Ganges 
and the Nile. . . Some years ago a man who had failed 
at another business started a $3,500 chair factory in 
Thomasville. Three years later one $500 stockholder 
refused $5,000 for his share of it. Other factories sprang 
up, and now the sun never sets but that Thomasville has 
shipped a chair for every man, woman and child in the 
towm. High Point was only a straggling country village 
fifteen years ago, when three young men invested $9,000 
in furniture manufacturing. To-day it ranks next to 
Grand Rapids, Mich., in output of furniture; it can fur- 
nish a house from cellar to garret except the piano (it will 
make pianos before the end of the year), and has just 
added street car and automobile making to its list of new 
industries," and so the story goes, but time would fail me 



In North Carolina. 179 

to tell of similar enterprise at Durham, Greensboro, Char- 
lotte, Gastonia, etc., showing that 'southward the star of 
empire takes its flight.' " 

These figures stagger us, and yet they are just a frac- 
tional part of our prosperity. They cannot convey to 
our minds even the faintest conception of the material 
development and rapidly increasing wealth of the new 
South. Unless God sends some disaster upon the country, 
or in some way stops the mill of prosperity that is grind- 
ing out its products in streams of gold, the human mind 
can scarcely comprehend the wealth of the South fifty 
years hence. Who can estimate its influence on the char- 
acter of the people ? Is the church keeping pace with this 
material prosperity? 

4. This leads to the concluding suggestion that this 
Industrial Awakening of the South calls for a correspond- 
ing spiritual awakening of the church, to the fact that 
Home Missions is the supreme need of the hour. How 
otherwise shall we contend with the spirit of commercial- 
ism, threatening to engulf the entire country in its in- 
satiable vortex of destruction. Tides of population once 
rolling westward will soon be sweeping in upon the South, 
attracted hither by this marvellous prosperil;y. Either we 
must evangelize our people or they will commercialize us. 
Other Christian countries have degenerated into a mere 
form of godliness, having lost absolutely the spirit and 
vital power of Christianity. Where is Jerusalem, the 
mother church? Where are Antioch, Alexandria, Ephe- 
sus and Rome, once great centers of religious life and 
spiritual power? History repeats itself; and our Chris- 
tian civilization may perish as effectually in the grasp of 
commercialism as any of the powerful churches in the 
past, at the hands of their deadly foes. The church of 
to-day has not a moment to lose. She needs to gird her- 



i8o The Presbyterian Church 

self for the tremendous conflict of the next quarter of a 
century in this country. If the battle is lost, who can 
forecast its influence on the ultimate destiny of the world ? 
Who can tell if it may postpone the ultimate triumph 
of the Gospel for centuries or millenniums? If never 
before, we ought to appreciate the rallying cry of Home 
iMissions, "Save America to save the world." 

Everything in this age is being projected on a gigantic 
scale. Great railroad combinations control the commerce 
of whole States and aggregations of States. Great 
monopolies throttle and banish from the field every sem- 
blance of rival competitors. Great institutions mould 
the thought of the nation. Is it a time for retrenchment 
in the spiritual world? Do not the prevailing conditions 
challenge the church to put forth her most Herculean 
efforts to meet powerful worldly influences with more 
powerful spiritual forces ? '^Not by might, nor by power, 
but by my Spirit, saith the Lord," and yet the Spirit of 
God uses means. God might have employed legions of 
angels. Instead he has ordained that the results should 
be accomplished by human instrumentalities under the 
operation of the Spirit. Will the church appreciate the 
need of the hour and undertake a campaign on a gigantic 
scale for the purpose of saving America? Where are her 
loyal and liberal sons who will furnish the sinews of war? 
Carnegie has flooded the country with public libraries. 
John D. Rockefeller has contributed to Foreign Missions 
hundreds of thousands of dollars and awakened an interest 
in education by endowments reaching into the millions. 
Hugh T. Inman has created an endcrwment for the relief 
of aged and infirm ministers, which places them beyond 
the reach of want. There are millionaires in the church 
who have never yet awakened to the possibilities of spirit- 
ual good in their vast and growing fortunes. Where are 



In North Carolina. i8i 

the men who will immortalize their names by linking them 
forever with the great cause of Home Missions? Where 
are the men who will feel the burden of their country and 
lay their thousands upon the altar of the church, as in the 
early days of Christianity, when whole fortunes were laid 
at the Apostles' feet. Better still, will the entire church 
awake to her opportunity of winning our own nation for 
Christ and her responsibility for countless lost souls at 
our very door? 



MISSION WORK. 

By Rev. Wm. Black. 

Mission work is work done by one sent, and, as ap- 
plied to the gospel, is work done by one sent by the Lord 
Jesus Christ; and in this great work he, himself, was a 
missionary, having been sent by the Father, as is de- 
clared in John iii. i6; and in announcing his own mission 
he says: 'The Son of Man is come to seek and to save 
that v^hich was lost." 

The right of a church to exist at all must rest upon 
its obedience and fideHty to the great principles enunciated 
by its founder, and by which it was authorized. The 
mission church is, therefore, the only church which could 
claim to be following his teachings or walking in his foot- 
steps. The greatest clarion call ever made to the Chris- 
tian is to be found in the w^ords of the Great Commission, 
and as Christ has made that call to the church, so he has 
commanded the church to go forth on its mission, send- 
ing forth this great call. To the unsaved she should be 
ever saying "come," and to the Christian, "go." Com- 
bining the words spoken by our Lord Jesus Christ in the 
Great Commission, as recorded in Matt., chapter xxviii., 
and Mark, chapter xvi., w^e have substantially these 
words: "Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel 
to every creature, and make disciples of all nations, bap- 
tizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of 'the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you ; and lo, I am 
with you alway, even unto the end of the world." 




REV. wm- bLacK 



In North Carolina. 183 

The spirit of Christ is the spirit of missions, but the 
majority of professing Christians are much more inter- 
ested in some form of worldhness than in any sort of 
work for Christ. Is this not true of you ? 

It is necessary to realize that every soul out of Christ 
is lost. Do you ? Have you seen the great throng of men 
and women — a thousand million of heathen, to say noth- 
ing of the half-million of our own kith and kin in North 
Carolina, out of Christ, marching down the rough path- 
way of life to eternity, lost? Have you seen the shadows 
of eternity, as they must very soon, grow dark upon 
this vast multitude that have not made Jesus their 
friend? If so^ are you moved with compassion and pity 
for them? If not, pray the Lord to open your eyes that 
you may see, unstop your ears, that you may hear the 
cry of the lost, and say, "Here am I, send me.'' This 
realization is necessary — in fact, is the very main-spring 
and starting-point of all evangelistic activity, and you 
will never be an earnest worker till the vision of lost 
souls has so seized upon your own soul that you cannot 
shake it off, until you have gone forth to their rescue. 
May it come upon every one who reads these lines, is 
the prayer of the writer. 

Let us, then, prayerfully examine this wonderful com- 
mission, with a heart-felt desire to know more of its re- 
quirements, make better use of its privileges, rejoice 
more in its honors, and reap more of its blessed rewards. 
It is certainly, not only the most sacred, but the greatest 
commission ever sent forth, and this is true because, (i) 
Its source, being from the King of kings and Lord of 
lords. (2) The issue involved, eternal life and eternal 
death. (3) The peoples included, the whole world. 
(4) The time it covers, to the end of the age; and lastly, 



184 The Presbyterian Church 

the workers appointed, tlie largest numbers and the finest 
characters. 

But, to be more specific, what of its command? What 
of the duties? Notice first, We are to "Go." 

*'Go ye/' is authority, not only for the persons then 
within the sound of our Saviour's voice, but for every 
person who is to do any sort of mission w^ork from then 
until the end of time ; but not only is it authority for, but 
it is a command to every Christian, that cannot be lightly 
treated or set aside, but must be obeyed ; and it is a com- 
mand, to be sure, to every minister of the gospel, to 
every church, and therefore to every member of the 
church ; it is to the officers, and especially the elders and 
deacons, to every Sunday-school teacher and every mis- 
sionary society, and to any and every Christian that has 
'^Heafd," not only to say ''come," but a command to ''go." 

If, in the Synod of North Carolina, where there are 
186 ministers, 1,440 elders, 1,357 deacons, 3,000 Sunday- 
school teachers, and about 41,000 members, every one 
should hear and obey this blessed command, would "Go," 
what a grand army of workers there would be for the 
Lord Jesus Christ. When we come to consider that this 
command has been standing for nearly two thousand 
years, and that there are to-day more persons out of 
Christ than ever before, and when we compare it with 
the work done in the first century, it is enough to make 
us stand appalled at our failure. At Thessalonica, the 
enemies of Christ declared that these "two men (Paul 
and Silas) had turned the zvorld upside down." Oh! 
that we Christians of to-day might be filled with the 
same love for souls, the same spirit of the Master, and 
the same power to do good. 

Let us notice carefully, too, that when the Saviour 
says "Go," we have not fulfilled this command simply by 



In North Carolina. 185 

building churches, preaching our sermons, teaching our 
Sunday-school lessons, holding our missionary society 
meetings, and attending upon the services ourselves, un- 
less indeed, we have made these exercises so attractive 
that the unsaved come and hear and are saved, so that 
if the unsaved do not come to the churches, we must go 
to them, or our skirts are not clear ; and that they, very 
many of them, are not coming, are not being reached, 
is evident, for many of them never darken a church door, 
yet many of us have taken false comfort from the fact 
that there was a church, a gospel preached, and that we 
had helped in it; but let us remember that we are not 
merely attempting to discharge a duty, but are endeavor- 
ing, if we have the spirit of the Master, to reach the tin- 
saved. It is one of the saddest facts with which we are 
confronted to-day, that the masses are not being reached. 
Few of the churches have more than half as many to 
attend upon the services as there are communicants 
upon the roll, so it is apparent that not even the church 
members attend with any regularity, much less are all 
the church members making any effort to reach the un- 
saved. Why is this? Many reasons might be given, 
but perhaps the best one could be found in the fact that 
there is a want of powder to attract and power to save 
in the multiplied services, preaching and otherwise, which 
we have. Our Saviour's command was that ''all are to 
GO, and to go to all," so when we come to consider how 
little help many ministers have from the church members, 
in carrying the gospel "to every creature," we have an- 
other explanation of why so few come to the services, and 
perhaps of why so few are reached. In apostolic times, 
we are told, "They that were scattered abroad went 
everywhere preaching the Word," and in the first verse 
of this same chapter, we are told that they were all scat- 



i86 The Presbyterian Church 

tered except the apostles, so that it is evident that they 
that were scattered and went everywhere preaching the 
Word, making direct efforts to save men, were not or- 
dained ministers, but were simply professing Christians — 
private members. 

If we were to keep within the limitation of this Great 
Commission, perhaps our services in the pulpit, in the 
Sunday-school, and elsewhere, would not only be more 
attractive, but have more power. Note that the limita- 
tion was that they should preach the gospel, and the 
gospel only, for it is quite possible for us, when preaching 
and teaching, to be very orthodox, and to tell much of 
the historical facts, of the geography, geology and other 
truths of the Bible, and yet not be preaching the gospel, 
for, as some one has well said, we should, when preaching 
and teaching, be sure to have both a subject and an 
object. Let the subject be the gospel, and the object 
the salvation of souls and the edification of believers, 
and with God's blessing upon us, we can scarcely fail 
of doing good ; but, alas, how much of this preaching 
and teaching seems to have other subjects than the gos- 
pel and other objects than the salvation of souls or edi- 
fication of believers; in short, is pointless, objectless, and, 
therefore, powerless. 

This Great Commission has a declaration attached in 
the form of a most blessed promise, which is most en- 
couraging, and I am sure that no one is authorized, or 
expected to accept the command to go preach the gospel, 
without also accepting, in good faith, the blessed promise. 
What is this promise? '^Lo, I am with you alway, even 
unto the end of the world." Here we have the promise 
of the presence of Jesus with us, an almighty, willing, 
anxious and able helper. 

Notice that this promise meant much to the apostles, 



In North Carolina. 187 

disciples and early Christians, indeed, even the apostles 
themselves were not permitted to accept the Great Com- 
mission and go forth to preach the gospel, until they had 
realized what His presence with them meant. It had no 
mystical, shadowy meaning to them, and none such is 
intended now. It is true they spoke with tongues and 
performed miracles, but it is also true that they were 
clothed with great power to preach and teach and speak 
for their Lord and Master. 

The statement of the text is, "I am with you alway." 
No one doubts that the command to go and preach the 
gospel is in force now, and will last until the end of time ; 
can it be that the command is in force, and that the 
promise is not? or, in other words, that we are com- 
manded to go and preach, but have no promise of his 
help? Surely not. If the disciples, who had been taught 
by our Saviour, face to face, needed the Spirit's help, 
surely we do, and yet there are so many to-day, we fear, 
to whom this promise, "Lo, I am with you alway," means 
really nothing. Shall we not pray that we may have a 
realization of what this promise means? We need this 
help to lead us in the right way ourselves, to keep us 
from self-dependence and self-help of all kinds, to make 
us humble, and to guide us, not only in the use of our 
words, but to keep these words from being as a sounding 
brass or a tinkling cymbal, for when the Word is 
preached or taught, without the power of the Spirit, it 
perhaps hardens the human heart as nothing else will do. 

We need, too, the help of the Holy Spirit to show us 
the necessity for work, to enable us to use our opportuni- 
ties, to give us a love for the work, and above all, for 
power, so that we may preach, teach, speak and live in 
such way that souls shall be saved. Observe that we were 
directed in this Great Commission to make disciples. Are 



i88 The Presbyterian Church 

you doing it? If not, why not? After the disciples are 
made, we are to teach them to observe all things that 
Christ has commanded them. At Pentecost, when the 
apostles were filled with the Spirit, in one sermon, three 
thousand souls were saved, and within a few days more, 
the number had increased, we are told, to five thousand. 
Why is it that we have no such power now? The 
promise stands, and, moreover, our Saviour teaches us, 
not only in this commission itself, but in numerous other 
Scriptures, to expect results. He has declared in the fif- 
teenth chapter of John's Gospel, ''Herein is my Father 
glorified, that ye bear much fruit." 

Is it not a fact that not very many souls are being 
saved, that professing Christians, most of them, are cold 
and apathetical, with little love for souls, and with little 
or no enthusiasm in the service of the Master? If so, are 
we satisfied for this state of afifairs to continue? 

Multiplying agencies is not enough; what we need is 
power, and we can and will have the power when we 
fulfill the conditions; that is to say, if we, ourselves, the 
church members are, (i) filled with the Spirit, and (2) 
filled with love for souls, filled with the knowledge of the 
Word, and will go to the people, even unto the highways 
and hedges, we can and will compel them to come in and 
hear the Word, and they will be saved. We can go our- 
selves, and we can, by our means, send others, and we 
should not be discouraged by past failures, but face 
squarely the facts and realize what they mean. First, 
that for 1,900 years the church has paid little attention 
to this Great Commission, to go into all the world and 
preach the gospel to every creature, and secondly, that 
the difficulties are not growing less, but larger. Third, 
that every one who fails to do his duty is a hinderer, and 
lastly, that we need for ourselves and others, not to save 



In North Carolina. 189 

alone our souls, but our lives, and enlist them in this 
great work. This done, the church must surely grow, 
for growth is the law of life, and action is the law of 
growth. God's law is, use or lose, and He destroyed the 
Jewish Church as it then existed, in part, because of its 
failure to perform the work given it to do. Any church 
that neglects or refuses to go forth, carrying the gospel 
to the unsaved, is surely inviting the judgment of the 
Lord upon it. Let us, therefore, awake to our responsi- 
bility, to ourselves, that we may be right, and to our fel- 
low men, that they may be helped, and especially to those 
who are out of Christ, that they may be saved, for the 
church at home is, as it were, the engine of all mission 
work at home and in foreign lands, therefore, we must 
live the Christ life ourselves and have a religion worth 
sending before we can successfully carry or send the gos- 
pel to the unsaved. 

There never was and never will be enough preachers 
to do this work at home or abroad; in fact, it was never 
intended that they should, but on the other hand, every 
Christian has been given a part in the work, for our 
Saviour said, ''Gave unto every man his work," and not 
only so, but it is equally true that the opportunities of 
the private members are frequently not less than those 
of the ministers, and as all have opportunities, it follows 
that all have a corresponding responsibility. 

Let us, then, give cheerfully ourselves, our means, our 
sons and our daughters, our all, to the accomplishment 
of this work, and do this, not simply as a duty, but as 
a great privilege, for in so doing, the reflex influence 
must tell most powerfully upon us and our churches. 
Remember, it is the still pond and not the running river 
that freezes and stagnates ; if, therefore, in our churches, 
our homes, and our hearts, there is spiritual freezing and 



190 The Presbyterian Church 

stagnation, the cause must be evident. We are not ac- 
tively engaged in the Master's work, not going to the 
unsaved, and therefore, spiritual apathy, almost akin to 
death, has seized upon us. Let us at once remove the 
cause, not only for the sake of the unsaved, but for our 
own sake. It is no small sin to be lukewarm, and to feel 
that we have need of nothing, self-satisfied, for the ter- 
rible denunciation pronounced by our Saviour upon such, 
shows how such conduct is viewed by Him. 

Are you a neglecter of work? Remember, a neglecter 
of work is a delayer of work. Delay it no longer. A 
million of years would not be sufficient to do the work at 
the present rate, and when we consider, that instead of 
having ages in which to do the work, the time is limited ; 
limited both as to the worker and the work. We who 
are to do the work have only a short time in which to 
reach the unsaved, for soon, our sun will be swinging 
toward the west, and life's little day will be gone, and 
with it our opportunity also ; then, too, if we had the 
time ourselves, the lost are dying every day, and dying 
without Christ, not only in heathen lands, but in your 
congregation, sometimes in your own family. What did 
you do to rescue them? 

Let us preach, teach and live Christ, for there has 
been entirely too much of everything else. Our multipli- 
cation of agencies, societies, committees, asylums, and 
what not, does not reach and does not accomplish what 
grace and consecration, by the help of the Spirit, alone 
can do. Let Christ be the starting, the rallying and the 
radiating point for every Christian ; let Him be our 
Wisdom and our Power. Let us bear his image, be so 
filled with His thoughts that we shall speak powerfully 
of Him and for Him. Expression is but the result of 
impression. If we, therefore, have not been impressed 



In North Carolina. 191 

with the necessity for doing mission work^ and of our 
obhgation to go and carry the gospel to the unsaved, 
how can we hope to express, with any power, this nec- 
^sity upon others, or reach the unsaved when speaking 
to them? 

Let us pray, too, for workers, and for the work, and 
work ourselves, praying as if all depended on God, and 
working as if all depended on us. We have riches and 
education and social standing. Do these things separate 
us from the people? If so, they are a peril and not a 
blessing, but, guided by the Spirit, these things should be 
a power for good in our hands. If we can but realize 
the sacred trust committed to us, and appreciate the great 
privilege of carrying this gospel to the unsaved, we shall 
have, as a reflex influence, more assurance that we are 
God's children, more joy in His service, as well as more 
success in what we undertake for Him ; it will build up 
our churches and give them new life and new power. 
Remember, that a tallow dip that gives light is better 
than a golden chandelier without flame. Be sure that 
you live a helpful life and begin it now ; while you wait, 
souls perish. What a splendid opportunity our elders, 
deacons and Sunday-school teachers, and in fact, every 
private member has, for they are of the people and among 
the people, in just the place and with just the knowledge 
of their needs to enable them to do the greatest good. 
Decide now that you will undertake to win a soul for 
Jesus every time you have the opportunity. 

"Have you found the heavenly light? Pass it on; 
Souls are groping in the night, daylight gone; 
Hold thy lighted lamp on high, 
Be a star in some one's sky; 

He may live, who else would die; pass it on." 



ig2 The Presbyterian Church 

Are you ready to say — will you — do you now say, 
"What shall I do, Lord?" Say it now. 

"Hark, the voice of Jesus crying, 

Who will go and work to-day? 
Fields are white and harvest waiting. 

Who will bear the sheaves away? 
Loud and strong the Master calleth. 

Rich reward he offers thee: 
Who will answer, gladly saying, 

Here am I; send me, send me? 

"If you cannot speak like angels, 

If you cannot preach like Paul, 
You can tell the love of Jesus; 

You can say, He died for all. 
If you cannot rouse the wicked 

With the judgment's dread alarms. 
You can lead the little children 

To the Saviour's waiting arms." 



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